THE PALI ALPHABET

June 19, 2018

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PRONUNCIATION OF LETTERS
(by Ven Nàrada)

 

a, as “u” in but

à, as “a” in art

i, as “i” in pin

ã, as “i” in machine

u, as “u” in put

å, as “u” in rule

e, as “e” in ten

¹, as “a” in fate

o, as “o” in hot

º, as “o” in note

k, as “k” in key

g, as “g” in get

ï, as “ng” in ring

c, as “ch” in rich

j, as “j” in jug

¤, as “gn” in signor

ñ, as “t” in not

ó, as “d” in hid

õ, as “n” in hint

p, as “p” in lip

b, as “b” in rib

m, as “m” in him

y, as “y” in yard

r, as “r” in rat

l, as “l” in sell

v, as “v” in vile

s, as “s” in sit

h, as “h” in hut

ë, as “l” in felt

§, as “ng” in sing

The vowels “e” and “o” are always long, except when followed by a double consonant, eg., ettha, oññha.

There is no difference between the pronunciation of “ï” and “§”. The former never stands at the end, but is always followed by a consonant of its group.

The dentals “t” and “d” are pronounced with the tip of the tongue placed against the front upper teeth.

The aspirates “kh”, “gh”, “ñh”, “óh”, “th”, “dh”, “ph”, “bh” are pronounced with “h” sound immediately following, as in blockhead, pighead, cathead, loghead, etc. where the “h” in each is combined with the preceding consonant in pronunciation.

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Preface to the Dhammapada

June 19, 2018

by Ven Nàrada

 

Buddhism appeals both to the masses and to the intelligentsia. It offers milk for the babe and meat for the strong. It presents one way of life to the members of the Holy Order and another to the laity. Above all, it expounds a unique Path of Enlightenment.

All these characteristics are featured in the Dhammapada, one of the thirty-one books that comprise the Tipitaka, the three Baskets which contain the quintessence of the Buddha’s Teachings.

Any truth-seeker irrespective of his religious beliefs, can read this book of Wisdom with interest and profit. By constantly reflecting on these golden sayings and by translating them into action in the course of one’s daily life a religious-minded person can gain spiritual bliss that transcends worldly happiness and can attain to a higher spiritual plane whereby he can purify himself and try to purify and enlighten others both by example and by precept.

The Dhammapada is not a book to be read superficially like a novel and shelved aside. It should be read and re-read so that it may serve as a constant companion for inspiration, solace, and edification in times of need.

The Dhammapada was not preached by the Buddha in the present form. Three months after the Passing Away of the Buddha, the Arahants, who assembled at the First Convocation to rehearse the Teachings of the Buddha, collected some of the poetic utterances of the Buddha, which He expounded on different occasions, arranged and classified the treatise in its present form, naming it the Dhammapada.

The Pali term Dhamma, Saüskrit Dharma, is one of the most difficult words to be translated into English as it has many meanings. It has to be understood according to the context. Here it is used in the sense of Sayings or Teachings of the Buddha. Pada implies sections, portions, parts, or way. Dhammapada may be rendered, “Sections or Portions of the Dhamma”, “The Way of the Dhamma”. It is somewhat difficult to offer a graceful English equivalent according to its literal meaning. “The Way of Truth”, “The Way of Righteousness”, “The Path of Virtue”, are renderings that have been suggested by various scholars.

The Dhammapada consists of 423 melodious Pali verses, uttered by the Buddha on about 300 occasions, to suit the temperaments of the listener in the course of His preaching tours during His ministry of forty-five years. Circumstances that led to these noble utterances are presented in the form of long or short stories together with traditional interpretations of the Pali verses and technical terms, in the voluminous commentary written by Buddhaghosa. This valuable commentary has been ably translated by E. W. Burlinghame for the Harvard Oriental Series. It may be remarked that most of these verses are better understood when read with the context.

The gems of truth embodied in these texts aptly illustrate the moral and philosophical Teachings of the Buddha.

The very first two stanzas briefly represent the ethico-philosophical system of the Buddha. The importance of the mind in assessing morality, the Buddhist law of moral causation (Kamma), the problem of pain and happiness, self-responsibility, etc., accompanied by two simple homely illustrations, find expression in these twin verses. The two relevant stories clarify the points at issue. The very first line of each of these twin verses presents some difficulty, especially the term Dhammà. Commentary gives a long interpretation. The two connected stories make the matter clear.

The verses dealing with hatred and its appeacement are of special significance in this atomic age. Force will certainly be met with force. Bombs will be met with bombs. Vengeance will be met with vengeance. Retaliation never leads to peace. Buddha’s advice to His non-violent followers is: “Hatreds never cease through hatred, but through love alone they cease”. Mettà or loving-kindness is the only answer to modern bombs.

The high ethical standard the Buddha expects from his ideal followers are depicted in some verses. The last two verses of the first chapter indicate the Buddha’s attitude towards mere learning and actual practice. The Dhamma is to be studied with the object of practising it. As such the Dhamma is compared to a raft whereby one crosses the ocean of Saüsàra. The very last verse is alone sufficient for an ideal Bhikkhu for his whole life time.

How the Buddha exercises His psychic powers to transform a lust-ridden, mentally sick Bhikkhu to a pure, spiritually healthy individual is evident from the story of prince Nanda, His step-brother, and the verses uttered concerning him.

In obedience to the Buddha, though with reluctance, prince Nanda entered the Order on his wedding day. As he was constantly thinking of his bride-elect without being intent on the Holy life, the Buddha, instead of adopting the usual direct method of instruction devised an effective practical way to divert his attention to a seemingly more desirable similar object and succeeded in making him an Arahant. See vv. 13-14.

The first two chapters mainly deal with the ethics of Buddhism and are of equal importance to both Bhikkhus and laymen.

The second chapter is a cogent answer to those critics who try to denounce Buddhism as “a dead hand”. Appamàda, which denotes heedfulness, vigilance, earnestness, watchfulness and other allied meanings, is the name given to the second chapter.

It was the first verse on heedfulness occurring in this chapter that completely transformed the character of King Asoka the Righteous, who was originally stigmatised – Asoka the Wicked – owing to his atrocities perpetrated before his conversion to Buddhism.

At times a single verse like the foregoing, a solitary line like “Seek no delight in worldly favours, but cultivate seclusion”, or a pregnant word like “Strive” is alone sufficient for a whole lifetime.

The verse 24, which deals with causes that tend to worldly progress, shows that Buddhism is not absolutely other-worldly as some hasty critics are apt to think.

The third chapter is of special significance as it enables one to understand the Buddhist conception of the mind and the importance of mind control.

The chapters on Pleasures, Happiness, Hell, Evil, World, Flowers, the Fool, the Wise, Craving, etc., will prove very helpful to those who are engrossed in material pleasures. The illusive nature of worldly happiness and the kind of life one should lead in such a deluded world are shown in these chapters.

The chapters on the Buddha, the Arahant, the Bràhmaõa will particularly appeal to those of a higher spiritual level. They depict the moral attitude of really enlightened beings.

One should not rest satisfied with a mere perusal of these golden sayings. They should be read, re-read, and pondered upon, together with the accompanying stories, drawing appropriate lessons therefrom. These interesting and edifying anecdotes clearly depict the greatness of the Buddha as an energetic, compassionate and wise Teacher, ever ready to serve all. All these noble utterances should be put into actual practice in the course of one’s daily life. Then only may one rightly say in the words of the Dhammapada:- “Happily he lives who drinks of the Dhamma”.

Readers will note the simplicity of the similes employed by the Buddha, which are intelligible even to a child. Take, for instance, the similes of the cart’s wheel, man’s shadow, the ill-thatched house, the sleeping village, clear deep lake, fragrant beautiful flower, a bee extracting honey, etc. The wisdom of the Buddha lies in His exposition of profound truths in such plain terms.

There is not a single verse in the Dhammapada that can be dismissed as unintelligible to a lay reader.

Direct teaching is the Buddha’s usual method of exposition. At times He exercises His psychic powers, not miracles, in order to enlighten His less intelligent hearers or to give an actual demonstration to a concrete truth. See vv. 146-147-148.

To a fisherman, named Ariya, meaning noble, whom He saw fishing, the Buddha said, “He is not an Ariya who is engaged in killing animals”. The man realized his ignoble act and later became a Noble in the strictest sense of the term. See v. 270.

In the Dhammapada there are several instances to show that the Buddha preached not only to the intelligentsia but also to little children in their own language. He was accessible to all. See v. 131.

In preparing this translation I have consulted with profit the learned articles on the Dhammapada written by my revered teacher, the Venerable P. Siri Vajira¤àna Mahà Nàyaka Thera, the ancient Siühala translation, and almost all the available English translations. Special care was taken not to deviate from the traditional commentarial interpretations.

My first translation of the Dhammapada appeared in 1940, with a Foreword by Dr. Cassius A. Pereira (later Kassapa Thera). Subsequently, the Mahabodhi Society of India published two revised pocket editions. Another revised edition was published in the Wisdom of the East Series in 1954 with a scholarly Introduction by Dr. E. J. Thomas, followed by a reprint in 1959. In this present latest edition several improvements have been made, copious notes have been added mainly for the benefit of those who are not acquainted with the fundamentals of the Dhamma, and relevant stories are given in brief in order to make the texts more intelligible to the readers.

I am grateful to Mr. S. W. Wijayatilaka, ex-Principal of Ananda College, Colombo, for carefully revising my manuscript and offering many valued suggestions.

NARADA MAHA THERA
Vajirarama,
Colombo 5.
9th May, 1971.

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26- Bràhmana Vagga

June 19, 2018

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Chapter 26
1: Though a racial term here it is applied either to a Buddha or an Arahant – to one who has completed the Way and has won Enlightenment. 1
The Bràhmana
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

1. Chinda sota§ parakkamma Þ
kàme panuda bràhmaõa
Saïkhàràna§ khaya§ ¤atvà Þ
akata¤¤å’ si bràhmaõa. 383.

BE A KNOWER OF THE UNCREATED

1. Strive and cleave the stream. 2 Discard, O bràhmana, sense-desires. Knowing the destruction of conditioned things, be, O bràhmaõa, a knower of the Unmade 3 (Nibbàna). 383.

Story

    A devotee, persuaded by his great faith, used to give alms in his house to the monks addressing them, “O Arahants”. The monks in their modesty resented his form of address and discontinued their visits to his house. The devotee was sad and he went to the Buddha to inquire why the monks had ceased to accept his alms. The monks explained the matter. The Buddha said that the devotee had used that form of address only out of respect and that they should try to become Arahants by cleaving the stream of craving.


2. Yadà dvayesu dhammesu Þ
pàragå hoti bràhmaõo
Atha’ ssa sabbe sa§yogà Þ
attha§ gacchanti jànato. 384.

CULTIVATE CONCENTRATION AND INSIGHT

2. When in two states 4 a bràhmaõa goes to the Farther Shore, 5 then all the fetters of that “one who knows” pass away. 384.

Story

    Knowing that some monks who had come to visit the Buddha from very far away were ripe to realize Nibbàna, the Venerable Sàriputta approached the Buddha, and questioned Him about the two states which the Buddha always used to commend. In reply the Buddha uttered this verse.


3. Yassa pàra§ apàra§ và Þ
pàràpàra§ na vijjati
Vãtaddara§ visa§yutta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 385.

THE UNBOUND PERSON IS A BRâHMAöA

3. For whom there exists neither the hither 6 nor the farther shore, nor both the hither and the farther shore, 7 he who is undistressed and unbound, 8 – him I call a bràhmaõa. 385.

Story

    Màra, disguised as a man, approached the Buddha and questioned Him about the farther shore. The Buddha, recognising him, dismissed him saying that he had nothing to do with the farther shore and uttered this verse.


4. Jhàyi§ virajam àsãna§ Þ
katakicca§ anàsava§
Uttamattha§ anuppatta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 386.

HE WHO IS MEDITATIVE AND PURE IS A BRâHMAöA

4. He who is meditative, 9 stainless and secluded, 10 he who has done his duty and is free from corruptions, 11 he who has attained the Highest Goal 12 – him I call a bràhmaõa. 386.

Story

    A brahmin noted that the Buddha used to address His monks as “bràhmaõa”, and he thought that he too was entitled to the same form of address as he was a brahmin by birth. He questioned the Buddha about the matter. The Buddha replied that one did not become a bràhmaõa by birth but by attaining his highest goal.


5. Divà tapati àdicco Þ
ratti§ obhàti candimà
Sannaddho khattiyo tapati Þ
jhàyã tapati bràhmaõo
Atha sabbam ahoratti§ Þ
buddho tapati tejasà. 387.

THE BUDDHA SHINES THROUGHOUT DAY AND NIGHT

5. The sun shines by day; the moon is radiant by night. Armoured shines the warrior king. 13 Meditating the bràhmaõa 14 shines. But all day and night the Buddha 15 shines in glory. 387.

Story

    The Venerable Ananda perceived a king in all his glory, a meditative monk seated in the hall, and the setting sun and the rising moon. Then he beheld the Buddha outshining them all in glory. When he mentioned his impressions of the different sights to the Buddha He uttered this verse.


6. Bàhitapàpo’ti bràhmaõo Þ
samacariyà samaõo’ ti vuccati
Pabbàjay’ attano mala§ Þ
tasmà pabbajito’ ti vuccati. 388.

HE IS HOLY WHO HAS DISCARDED ALL EVIL

6. Because he has discarded evil, he is called a bràhmaõa; because he lives in peace, 16 he is called a samana; because he gives up the impurities, he is called a pabbajita – recluse. 388.

Story

An ascetic of an alien sect approached the Buddha and requested Him to address Him as “pabbajita” – recluse. In reply the Buddha uttered this verse.


7. Na bràhmaõassa pahareyya Þ
n’ ƒssa mu¤cetha bràhmaõo
Dhã bràhmaõassa hantàra§ Þ
tato dhã yassa mu¤cati. 389.
8. Na bràhmaõass’ etadaki¤ci seyyo Þ
yadà nisedho manaso piyehi
Yato yato hi§samano nivattati Þ
tato tato sammatimeva dukkha§. 390.

HARM NOT AN ARAHANT

7. One should not strike a bràhmaõa, 17 nor should a bràhmaõa vent (his wrath) on one who has struck him. Shame on him who strikes a bràhmaõa! More shame on him who gives vent (to his wrath)! 389.

AN ARAHANT DOES NOT RETALIATE

8. Unto a bràhmaõa that (non-retaliation) is of no small advantage. When the mind is weaned from things dear, whenever the intent to harm ceases, then and then only doth sorrow subside. 390.

Story

    Once a certain brahmin struck the Venerable Sàriputta to test his patience. The latter did not get angry. Instead of retaliating, he pardoned him and also ate food in his house. Praising the Venerable Sàriputta for his outstanding patience, the Buddha explained the attitude of a real bràhmaõa (Arahant).


9. Yassa kàyena vàcàya Þ
manasà natthi dukkata§
Sa§vuta§ tãhi ñhànehi Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 391.

HE IS A TRUE BRâHMAöA WHO IS WELL-RESTRAINED

9. He that does no evil through body, speech or mind, who is restrained in these three respects – him I call a bràhmaõa. 391.

Story

    Some nuns would not observe the vinaya ceremonies with the Venerable Mahà Pajàpati Gotami since they doubted her authenticity as a bhikkhunã (nun). The Buddha explained matters and remarked that no doubts should be entertained with regard to a Passionless One who is restrained in the three doors (i.e., body, speech and mind).


10. Yamhà dhamma§ vijàneyya Þ
sammàsambuddhadesita§
Sakkacca§ ta§ namasseyya Þ
aggihutta§’va bràhmaõo. 392.

HONOUR TO WHOM HONOUR IS DUE

10. If from anybody one should understand the doctrine preached by the Fully Enlightened One, devoutly should one reverence him, as a brahmin reveres the sacrificial fire. 392.

Story

    The Venerable Sàriputta, in reverencing his first teacher, the Venerable Assaji, from whom he had learnt the Dhamma, used to turn in the direction of Assaji’s abode. Some monks misconstrued his action and reported to the Buddha that Sàriputta was reverencing the cardinal points. 18 The Buddha defended him and explained the attitude of a pupil towards his teacher.


11. Na jañàhi na gottena Þ
na jaccà hoti bràhmaõo
Yamhi sacca¤ ca dhammo ca Þ
so sucã so ca bràhmaõo. 393.

PURE IS HE WHO IS TRUTHFUL AND RIGHTEOUS

11. Not by matted hair, nor by family, nor by birth does one become a bràhmaõa. But in whom there exist both truth 19 and righteousness, 20 pure is he, a bràhmaõa is he. 393.

Story

    A brahmin by birth approached the Buddha and requested Him to address him as “bràhmaõa” just as the monks were addressed. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


12. Ki§ te jañàhi dummedha Þ
ki§ te ajinasàñiyà
Abbhantara§ te gahaõa§ Þ
bàhira§ parimajjasi. 394.

BE PURE WITHIN

12. What is the use of your matted hair, O witless man? What is the use of your antelope skin garment? Within, you are full of passions; without, you embellish yourself. 21 394.

Story

    The Buddha uttered this verse in connection with an ascetic who attempted to kill a lizard.


13. Pa§sukåladhara§ jantu§ Þ
kisa§ dhamanisanthata§
Eka§ vanasmi§ jhàyanta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 395.

WHO MEDITATES ALONE IN THE FOREST IS A BRâHMAöA

13. The person who wears dust-heap robes, 22 who is lean, whose veins stand out, who meditates alone in the forest – him I call a bràhmaõa. 395.

Story

    The Venerable Kisà Gotamã, who was meditating alone in the forest, wearing dust-heap robes, came through the air to salute the Buddha. Seeing Sakka, King of the gods, she turned back after saluting. Sakka wished to know who she was. The Buddha uttered this verse in reply.


14. Na c’ƒha§ bràhmaõa§ bråmi Þ
yonija§ mattisambhava§
Bhovàdi nàma so hoti Þ
sa ce hoti saki¤cano
Aki¤cana§ anàdàna§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 396.

THE NON-POSSESSIVE AND THE NON-ATTACHED PERSON IS A BRâHMAöA

14. I do not call him a bràhmaõa merely because he is born of a (brahmin) womb or sprung from a (brahmin) mother. He is merely a “Dear-addresser”, 23 if he be with impediments. He who is free from impediments, free from clinging – him I call a bràhmaõa. 396.

Story

    A brahmin by birth wished the Buddha to address him as “bràhmaõa”. The Buddha uttered this verse in reply.


15. Sabbasa¤¤ojana§ chetvà Þ
yo ve na paritassati
Saïgàtiga§ visa§yutta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 397.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS DESTROYED ALL FETTERS

15. He who has cut off all fetters, who trembles not, who has gone beyond ties, who is unbound – him I call a bràhmaõa. 397.

Story

    The Buddha uttered this verse when the monks reported to the Buddha that the Venerable Uggasena, an Arahant, claimed that he had no fear.


16. Chetvà naddhi§ varatta¤ ca Þ
sandàma§ sahanukkama§
Ukkhittapaëigha§ buddha§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 398.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS NO HATRED

16. He who has cut the strap (hatred), the thong (craving), and the rope (heresies), together with the appendages (latent tendencies), who has thrown up the cross-bar (ignorance), who is enlightened 24 (Buddha) – him I call a bràhmaõa. 398.

Story

    Two persons arguing about the comparative strength of their oxen tested them by loading their carts with sand and forcing the oxen to draw them. The carts would not stir an inch but instead the thongs and straps broke. The monks saw this and mentioned it to the Buddha. Thereupon He advised the monks to destroy the thongs and straps in their own minds.


17. Akkosa§ vadhabandha¤ ca Þ
aduññho yo titikkhati
Khantibala§ balàõãka§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 399.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS PATIENT

17. He who, without anger, endures reproach, flogging and punishments, whose power and potent army is patience – him I call a bràhmaõa. 399.

Story

    A certain wife used to ejaculate words of praise to the Buddha whenever the slightest mishap occurred. Her husband objected to her habit but she persisted. The provoked husband went to the Buddha and angrily put some questions to the Buddha. Hearing His reply, which was marked by great patience, the irate husband became a convert and entered the Order. His brothers came and abused the Buddha for converting him. The Buddha patiently endured their reproach and preached to them. They were also converted. When the monks extolled His patience the Buddha uttered this verse.


18. Akkodhana§ vatavanta§ Þ
sãlavanta§ anussuta§
Danta§ antimasàrãra§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 400.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS NOT WRATHFUL

18. He who is not wrathful, but is dutiful, 25 virtuous, free from craving, self-controlled and bears his final body, 26 – him I call a bràhmaõa. 400.

Story

    The Venerable Sàriputta was reviled by his own mother as she resented his taking of the monastic life, but he was patient. Hearing of his patience, the Buddha uttered this verse in praise of him.


19. Vàripokkharapatt’ eva Þ
àragger’ iva sàsapo
Yo na limpati kàmesu Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 401.

HE IS A BRâHMAöA WHO CLINGS NOT TO SENSUAL PLEASURES

19. Like water on a lotus leaf, like a mustard seed on the point of a needle, he who clings not to sensual pleasures – him I call a bràhmaõa. 401.

Story

    When an Arahant bhikkhunã was raped by a former suitor of hers the monks began wondering whether Arahants are susceptible to sensual pleasures. The Buddha explained that Arahants are not so susceptible.


20. Yo dukkhassa pajànàti Þ
idh’ eva khayam attano
Pannabhàra§ visa§yutta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 402.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS LAID THE BURDEN ASIDE

20. He who realizes here in this world the destruction of his sorrow, who has laid the burden 27 aside and is emancipated, 28 – him I call a bràhmaõa. 402.

Story

    Before the promulgation of the rule with regard to the ordination of slaves, a slave belonging to a brahmin ran away and entered the Order. Soon he attained Arahantship. The brahmin, seeing him when he went in quest of alms, held him by the hem of his robe. The Buddha remarked that the slave had laid the burden aside and uttered this verse.


21. Gambhãrapa¤¤a§ medhàvi§ Þ
maggƒmaggassa kovida§
Uttamattha§ anuppatta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 403.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS REACHED HIS ULTIMATE GOAL

21. He whose knowledge is deep, who is wise, who is skilled in the right and wrong way, 29 who has reached the highest goal – him I call a bràhmaõa. 403.

Story

    The Venerable Khemà bhikkhunã came to pay her respects to the Buddha and seeing Sakka King of the gods, saluted the Buddha and turned back. Sakka inquired of the Buddha who she was. The Buddha answered that she was a daughter of His who was very wise.


22. Asa§saññha§ gahaññhehi Þ
anàgàrehi c’åbhaya§
Anokasàri§ appiccha§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 404.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS NO INTIMACY WITH ANY

22. He who is not intimate either with householders or with the homeless ones, who wanders without an abode, who is without desires – him I call a bràhmaõa. 404.

Story

    Once a monk was dwelling in a cave. A goddess, who had her abode in the cave, made a false accusation against him in order to drive him away. The monk was not angered; on the contrary her words induced him to attain Arahantship. Later, he went to see the Buddha and mentioned the whole incident. The Buddha thereupon uttered this verse.


23. Nidhàya daõóa§ bhåtesu Þ
tasesu thàvaresu ca
Yo na hanti na ghàteti Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 405.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS ABSOLUTELY HARMLESS

23. He who has laid aside the cudgel in his dealings with beings, 30 whether feeble or strong, who neither harms nor kills – him I call a bràhmaõa. 405.

Story

    A monk, who had attained Arahantship while dwelling in a forest, was on his way to see the Buddha. A woman who had quarrelled with her husband entered the same forest desiring to return to her parents’ home. The husband, finding his wife missing, entered the forest in search of her. He saw the woman following the Arahant. The husband, suspecting the Arahant, beat him soundly in spite of the pleadings of his wife, who vouched for his innocence. Later, the Arahant saw the Buddha and mentioned the whole incident. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


24. Aviruddha§ viruddhesu Þ
attadaõóesu nibbuta§
Sàdànesu anàdàna§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 406.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS FRIENDLY AMONGST THE HOSTILE

24. He who is friendly amongst the hostile, who is peaceful amongst the violent, who is unattached amongst the attached, 31 – him I call a bràhmaõa. 406.

Story

    A female devotee expressed her desire to offer food at her house to five monks. Accordingly five Arahant novices went to her house for alms as invited. But as she desired to have five elderly bràhmaõas (monks), she did not offer alms to the novices. Later she was convinced of their greatness, for although they were not served first they were not angry. The Buddha, hearing their story, uttered this verse.


25. Yassa ràgo ca doso ca Þ
màno makkho ca pàtito
Sàsapor’ iva àraggà Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 407.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS DISCARDED ALL PASSIONS

25. In whom lust, hatred, pride, detraction are fallen off like a mustard seed from the point of a needle – him I call a bràhmaõa. 407.

Story

    An Arahant advised his brother monk to leave the Order as he could not memorise a single verse even after four months. The monks thought that the Arahant had done so in anger. The Buddha explained that Arahants have no passions and that the Arahant concerned had been actuated by reverence for the Dhamma. 32


26. Akakkasa§ vi¤¤àpani§ Þ
gira§ sacca§ udãraye
Yàya n’ ƒbhisaje ka¤ci Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 408.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO GIVES OFFENCE TO NONE

26. He who utters gentle, instructive, true words, who by his speech gives offence to none – him I call a bràhmaõa. 408.

Story

    An Arahant was in the habit of addressing others with an epithet employed only in addressing outcastes. The monks took objection to his form of address and mentioned it to the Buddha. Thereupon the Buddha explained that the Arahant had not done so with evil intent but through force of habit from past lives, and on that occasion He uttered this verse.


27. Yo’dha dãgha§ va rassa§ và Þ
aõu§ thåla§ subhƒsubha§
Loke adinna§ nƒdiyati Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 409.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO STEALS NOT

27. He who in this world takes nothing that is not given, be it long or short, small or great, fair or foul – him I call a bràhmaõa. 409.

Story

    An Arahant mistaking a cloth lying on the ground for one abandoned by the owner, took it. The owner saw it and accused him of theft. The Arahant explained that he had not taken it with thievish intent and returned it. He told the other monks about the incident. The monks made fun of him. The Buddha explained that Arahants do not steal anything from others.


28. âsà yassa na vijjanti Þ
asmi§ loke paramhi ca
Niràsaya§ visa§yutta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 410.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS DESIRELESS

28. He who has no longings, pertaining to this world or to the next, who is desireless and emancipated – him I call a bràhmaõa. 410.

Story

    The Venerable Sàriputta, at the termination of a rainy season which he had spent in a certain place with many other monks, advised them to bring the robes presented to the young monks and novices and went to see the Buddha. The monks, misconstruing his words, thought that he still harboured desires. The Buddha explained the attitude of the Venerable Sàriputta.


29. Yassƒlayà na vijjanti Þ
a¤¤àya akatha§kathã
Amatogadha§ anuppatta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 411.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS NO LONGINGS

29. He who has no longings, who, through knowledge, is free from doubts, who has gained a firm footing in the Deathless (Nibbàna) – him I call a bràhmaõa. 411.

Story

    The story is similar to the preceding one. This time the accusation was made against the Venerable Moggallàna.


30. Yo’dha pu¤¤a¤ ca pàpa¤ ca Þ
ubho saïga§ upaccagà
Asoka§ viraja§ suddha§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 412.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS TRANSCENDED GOOD AND EVIL

30. Herein he who has transcended both good and bad and the ties 33 as well, who is sorrowless, stainless, and pure – him I call a bràhmaõa. 412.

Story

    When the monks spoke in admiration of the great merit of the Venerable Revata the Buddha mentioned that he was beyond both good and evil.


31. Canda§’ va vimala§ suddha§ Þ
vippasannam anàvila§
Nandãbhavaparikkhãõa§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 413.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS PURE

31. He who is spotless as the moon, who is pure, serene, and unperturbed, 34 who has destroyed craving for becoming – him I call a bràhmaõa. 413.

Story

    Owing to a meritorious act in a past birth a person possessed a light like unto the moon’s disc, issuing from his navel. When he came to the presence of the Buddha it disappeared. He wished to know from the Buddha the cause of its disappearance. The Buddha promised to answer if he would enter the Order. Later, he became a monk and attained Arahantship. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


32. Yo ima§ paëipatha§ dugga§ Þ
sa§sàra§ moham accagà
Tiõõo pàragato jhàyã Þ
anejo akatha§kathã
Anupàdàya nibbuto Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 414.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO CLINGS TO NAUGHT

32. He who has passed beyond this quagmire, 35 this difficult path, 36 the ocean of life (sa§sàra), and delusion, 37 who has crossed 38 and gone beyond, who is meditative, free from craving and doubts, who, clinging to naught, has attained Nibbàna – him I call a bràhmaõa. 414.

Story

    This verse was uttered by the Buddha in connection with Arahant Sãvalã, who had to suffer long in the mother’s womb.


33. Yo’ dha kàme pahatvàna Þ
anàgàro paribbaje
Kàmabhavaparikkhãõa§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 415.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS GIVEN UP SENSE-DESIRES

33. He who in this world giving up sense-desires, would renounce worldly life and become a homeless one, he who has destroyed sense-desires and becoming – him I call a bràhmaõa. 415.

Story

    A courtesan tried to tempt a young monk who belonged to a wealthy family but failed. Praising him, the Buddha uttered this verse.


34. Yo’ dha taõha§ pahatvàna Þ
anàgàro paribbaje
Taõhàbhavaparikkhãõa§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 416.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS GIVEN UP CRAVING

34. He who in this world giving up craving, would renounce worldly life and become a homeless one, he who has destroyed craving and becoming – him I call a bràhmaõa. 416.

Story

    A wealthy man retired from the world and attained Arahantship. The Buddha uttered this verse to show that the man no longer had any longing for wealth or wife.


35. Hitvà mànusaka§ yoga§ Þ
dibba§ yoga§ upaccagà
Sabbayogavisa§yutta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 417.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS DISCARDED ALL BONDS

35. He who, discarding human ties and transcending celestial ties, is completely delivered from all ties – him I call a bràhmaõa. 417.

Story

    A monk, who had once been a dancer, said, when questioned by the other monks, that he had no more longing for dancing. Commenting on his change of life and his attainment to Arahantship, the Buddha uttered this verse.


36. Hitvà rati¤ ca arati¤ ca Þ
sãtibhåta§ niråpadhi§
Sabbalokàbhibhu§ vãra§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 418.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS GIVEN UP LIKES AND DISLIKES

36. He who has given up likes 39 and dislikes, 40 who is cooled and is without defilements, 41 who has conquered the world 42 and is strenuous – him I call a bràhmaõa. 418.

Story

    The story is similar to the preceding one.


37. Cuti§ yo vedi sattàna§ Þ
upapatti¤ ca sabbaso
Asatta§ sugata§ buddha§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 419.
38. Yassa gati§ na jànanti Þ
devà gandhabbamànusà
Khãõàsava§ arahanta§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 420.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS NOT ATTACHED

37. He who in every way knows the death and rebirth of beings, who is non-attached, well-gone, 43 and enlightened, 44 – him I call a bràhmaõa. 419.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS AN ARAHANT

38. He whose destiny neither gods nor gandhabbas 45 nor men know, who has destroyed all corruptions, and is far removed from passions (Arahant) – him I call a bràhmaõa. 420.

Story

    A man, named Vangãsa, was able to divine where a dead person had been reborn by tapping at the skull of the dead. Once he came to the Buddha and succeeded in divining the place and state of rebirth of several but failed in the case of an Arahant. He wished to know from the Buddha by what charm he would be able to tell the destiny of such persons. The Buddha replied that He would teach him the charm if he would enter the Order. With the object of learning the charm he became a monk. But before long he attained Arahantship. With reference to him the Buddha uttered these verses.


39. Yassa pure ca pacchà ca Þ
majjhe ca natthi ki¤cana§
Aki¤cana§ anàdàna§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 421.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO YEARNS FOR NAUGHT

39. He who has no clinging to Aggregates that are past, future, or present, who is without clinging and grasping – him I call a bràhmaõa. 421.

Story

    A very devout young wife, with the permission of her husband (who had attained Anàgàmi, the third stage of Sainthood), became a nun and attained Arahantship. One day the husband approached her and put some difficult questions on the Dhamma with the object of testing her. She answered all the questions. When she was questioned on points beyond her scope she referred her husband to the Buddha. Hearing the answers given by the nun, the Buddha applauded her and uttered this verse.


40. Usabha§ pavara§ vãra§ Þ
mahesi§ vijitàvina§
Aneja§ nahàtaka§ Buddha§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 422.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS ENLIGHTENED

40. The fearless, 46 the noble, the hero, the great sage, 47 the conqueror, 48 the desireless, the cleanser 49 (of defilements), the enlightened, 50 – him I call a bràhmaõa. 422.

Story

    This verse was uttered by the Buddha in connection with the fearlessness of the Venerable Angulimàla.


41. Pubbenivàsa§ yo vedã Þ
saggƒpàya¤ ca passati
Atho jàtikkhaya§ patto Þ
abhi¤¤àvosito muni
Sabbavositavosàna§ Þ
tam aha§ bråmi bràhmaõa§. 423.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS PERFECTED HIMSELF

41. That sage who knows his former abodes, who sees the blissful 51 and the woeful states, 52 who has reached the end of births, 53 who, with superior wisdom, has perfected himself, 54 who has completed 55 (the holy life), and reached the end of all passions – him I call a bràhmaõa. 423.

Story

    Once the Buddha was suffering from a rheumatic pain. A devotee prepared for Him some hot water for a bath. When the Buddha was cured of the pain he came to the Buddha and wished to know to what kind of person a gift should be given if it is to yield abundant fruit. In reply the Buddha uttered this verse.

THE END


End Notes

1 Though a racial term here it is applied either to a Buddha or an Arahant – to one who has completed the Way and has won Enlightenment.

2 Sota§ – stream of craving.

3 Nibbàna is not made of anything. It is unconditioned.

4 Concentration (samatha) and Insight (vipassanà).

5 That is, in acquiring higher intellect (abhi¤¤à).

6 Pàra§ – the six personal sense-fields; apàra§ – the six external sense-fields.

7 Not grasping anything as “me” and “mine”.

8 Not connected with the passions.

9 He who practises concentration (samatha) and insight (vipassanà).

10 âsãna§, living alone in the forest.

11 By realizing the four Truths and eradicating the fetters.

12 That is, Nibbàna.

13 Here Khattiya refers to a king.

14 That is, an Arahant.

15 The Buddha eclipses immorality by the power of morality (sãla), vice by the power of virtue (guõa), ignorance by the power of wisdom (pa¤¤à), demerit by the power of merit (pu¤¤a), unrighteousness by the power of righteousness (dhamma). (Commentary).

16 Having subdued all evil.

17 Here bràhmaõa is used in the sense of an Arahant.

18 The adherents of certain cults worshipped the four cardinal points, the zenith and the nadir, e.g., Sigàla (of the Sigàlovàda Sutta).

19 The realization of the four Noble Truths.

20 Here Dhamma refers to the nine supramundane States – the four Paths, the four Fruits, and Nibbàna.

21 With the paraphernalia of the ascetics.

22 Robes made of cast-off rags.

23 Bho is a familiar form of address which even the Buddha used in addressing laymen. The term Bho-vàdi is applied to the Buddha as well.

24 Who has understood the four Noble Truths.

25 Devoted to religious austerity.

26 “Final body” because he, having destroyed the passions, would be reborn no more.

27 The burden of the Aggregates.

28 From all defilements.

29 Who knows the way to the woeful states, to the blissful states, and to Nibbàna.

30 Literally, towards beings.

31 Those who are attached to the Aggregates.

32 See v. 25.

33 Lust, hatred, delusion, pride, and false views.

34 Undisturbed by defilements.

35 Of lust and so forth.

36 Of passions.

37 That which veils the four Noble Truths.

38 The four floods – namely: sense-desires, becoming, false views, and ignorance.

39 That is, attachment to sense-desires.

40 Arati = dislike for forest life. (Commentary)

41 Upadhi – there are four kinds of upadhi – namely: the aggregates (khandha), the passions (kilesa), volitional activities (abhisaïkàra), and sense-desires (kàma).

42 That is, the world of Aggregates.

43 Sugata§ = well-gone in practice, that is, to Nibbàna.

44 Buddha§ = he who has understood the four Noble Truths.

45 A class of celestial beings.

46 Usabha§, fearless as a bull.

47 Mahesi§, seeker of higher morality, concentration, and wisdom.

48 Vijitàvina§, the conqueror of passions.

49 Nahàtaka§, he who has washed away all impurities.

50 Buddha§, he who has understood the four Noble Truths.

51 Sagga, the six heavenly realms, the sixteen Råpa Realms, and the four Aråpa Realms.

52 Apàya, the four woeful states.

53 Jàtikkhaya§, i.e., Arahantship.

54 Abhi¤¤àvosito, i.e., reached the culmination by comprehending that which should be comprehended, by discarding that which should be discarded, by realizing that which should be realized, and by developing that which should be developed. (Commentary)

55 Sabbavositavosàna§, i.e., having lived the Holy Life which culminates in wisdom pertaining to the Path of Arahantship, the end of all passio


24- Tanhà Vagga

June 19, 2018

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Chapter 24

tanha (1)
Craving
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Manujassa pamattacàrino Þ – tanhà vaóóhati màluvà viya
So plavati huràhura§ Þ – phalam iccha§’va vanasmi§ vànaro. 334.

2. Ya§ esà sahatã jammã Þ – taõhà loke visattikà
Sokà tassa pavaóóhanti Þ – abhivaññha§’va bãraõa§. 335.

3. Yo c’eta§ sahatã jammi§ Þ – taõha§ loke duraccaya§
Sokà tamhà papatanti Þ – udabindu’va pokkharà. 336.

4. Ta§ vo vadàmi bhadda§ vo Þ – yàvant’ ettha samàgatà
Taõhàya måla§ khanatha Þ – usãrattho’ va bãraõa§
Mà vo naëa§’ va soto’ va Þ – màro bha¤ji punappuna§. 337.

spider-monkey-playing

CRAVING ARISES IN THE NEGLIGENT

1. The craving 1 of the person addicted to careless living grows like a creeper.
He jumps from life to life like a fruit-loving monkey in the forest. 334.

THOSE WHO CRAVE MULTIPLY THEIR SORROWS

2. Whomsoever in this world this base clinging thirst overcomes, his sorrows flourish like well-watered bãraõa grass. 335.

THERE IS NO SORROW TO THE CRAVING-FREE

3. Whoso in the world overcomes this base unruly craving, from him sorrows fall away like water-drops from a lotus-leaf. 336.

CUT OFF CRAVING FROM THE ROOT

4. This I say to you: Good luck to you all who have assembled here! Dig up the root of craving like one in quest of bãraõa’s sweet root. Let not Màra 2 crush you again and again as a flood (crushes) a reed. 337.

Source Story

    The Buddha uttered these verses with reference to an insolent monk, who though well-versed in the Dhamma, was full of craving and through pride used to disparage others.


5. Yathà’ pi måle anupaddave daëhe Þ – chinno’ pi rukkho punareva råhati
Evam pi taõhànusaye anåhate Þ – nibbattatã dukkham ida§ punappuna§. 338.

6. Yassa chatti§satã sotà Þ – manàpassavanà bhusà
Vàhà vahanti duddiññhi§ Þ – saïkappà ràganissità. 339.

7. Savanti sabbadhã sotà Þ – latà ubbhijja tiññhati
Ta¤ ca disvà lata§ jàta§ Þ –måla§ pa¤¤àya chindatha. 340.

8. Saritàni sinehitàni ca Þ – somanassàni bhavanti jantuno
Te sàtasità sukhesino Þ – te ve jàtijaråpagà narà. 341.

9. Tasiõàya purakkhatà pajà Þ – parisappanti saso’ va bàdhito
Sa§yojanasaïgasattà Þ – dukkham upenti punappuna§ ciràya. 342.

10. Tasiõàya purakkhatà pajà Þ – parisappanti saso’ va bàdhito
Tasmà tasiõa§ vinodaye Þ – bhikkhu àkaïkhã viràgam attano. 343.

 

THERE IS SUFFERING AS LONG AS THERE IS CRAVING

5. Just as a tree with roots unharmed and firm, though hewn down, sprouts again, even so while latent craving is not rooted out, this sorrow springs up again and again. 338.

LUSTFUL THOUGHTS ARISE IN HIM WHO HAS CRAVING

6. If in anyone the thirty-six streams (of craving 3) that rush towards pleasurable thoughts 4 are strong, such a deluded person, torrential thoughts of lust carry off. 339.

CUT OFF CRAVING WITH WISDOM

7. The streams (craving) flow everywhere. The creeper (craving) sprouts 5 and stands. 6 Seeing the creeper that has sprung up, with wisdom cut off root. 340.

ATTACHMENT TO SENSUAL PLEASURES LEAD TO BIRTH AND DECAY

8. In beings there arise pleasures that rush (towards sense-objects) and (such beings) are steeped in craving. Bent on happiness, they seek happiness. Verily, such men come to birth and decay. 341.

FETTERED BY CRAVING THEY COME TO GRIEF

9. Folk enwrapt in craving are terrified like a captive hare. Held fast by fetters and bonds, 7 for long they come to sorrow again and again. 342.

HE WHO DESIRES PASSIONLESSNESS SHOULD DISCARD CRAVING

10. Folk, enwrapt in craving, are terrified like a captive hare. Therefore a bhikkhu who wishes his own passionlessness (Nibbàna) should discard craving. 343.

Story

    While the Buddha was passing along a street he saw a young sow. Relating how in some of her past births she had enjoyed high estate and in others suffered degradation, He spoke on the manifold evil consequences of craving.


 

11. Yo nibbanatho vanàdhimutto Þ
vanamutto vanam eva dhàvati
Ta§ puggalam etha passatha Þ
mutto bandhanam eva dhàvati. 344.

 

IT IS FOOLISH TO RETURN TO WORLDLY LIFE

11. Whoever with no desire (for the household) finds pleasure in the forest (of asceticism) and though freed from desire (for the household), (yet) runs back to that very home. Come, behold that man! Freed, he runs back into that very bondage. 8 344.

Story

    This verse was uttered by the Buddha about a young man who, through faith, entered the Order, but later, tempted by sensual pleasures, returned to the household life.


12. Na ta§ daëha§ bandhanam àhu dhãrà Þ
yadàyasa§ dàruja§ babbaja¤ ca
Sàrattarattà maõikuõóalesu Þ
puttesu dàresu ca yà apekhà 345.
13. Eta§ daëha§ bandhanam àhu dhãrà Þ
ohàrina§ sithila§ duppamu¤ca§
Etam pi chetvàna paribbajanti 
9 Þ
anapekkhino kàmasukha§ pahàya. 346.

 

ATTACHMENT TO WORLDLY OBJECTS IS FAR STRONGER THAN IRON CHAINS

12. That which is made of iron, wood or hemp, is not a strong bond, say the wise; the longing for jewels, ornaments, children, and wives is a far greater attachment. 345.

RENOUNCE SENSUAL PLEASURES

13. That bond is strong, say the wise. It hurls down, is supple, and is hard to loosen. This too the wise cut off, and leave the world, with no longing, renouncing sensual pleasures. 346.

Story

    Some monks passing a prison house observed the criminals bound by chains. They inquired of the Buddha whether there were other bonds stronger than what they had seen. The Buddha replied that the bond of craving was a thousand times stronger.


14. Ye ràgarattànupatanti sota§ Þ
saya§ kata§ makkañako’ va jàla§
Etam pi chetvàna vajanti dhãrà Þ
anapekkhino sabbadukkha§ pahàya. 347.

 

THE LUSTFUL ARE CAUGHT IN THEIR OWN WEB

14. Those who are infatuated with lust fall back into the stream as (does) a spider into the web spun by itself. This too the wise cut off and wander, with no longing, released from all sorrow. 347.

Story

    A certain queen was infatuated with her own beauty. The Buddha contrived a means to create in her disgust for external beauty. Consequently she realized the transitoriness of life. In admonition the Buddha uttered this verse.


15. Mu¤ca pure mu¤ca pacchato Þ
majjhe mu¤ca bhavassa pàragå
Sabbattha vimuttamànaso Þ
na puna jàtijara§ upehisi. 348.

 

RELEASE YOUR MIND

15. Let go the past. Let go the future. Let go the present 10 (front, back and middle). Crossing to the farther shore of existence, with mind released from everything, do not again undergo birth and decay. 348.

Story

    A youth fell in love with a female acrobat and, becoming an acrobat himself, wandered from place to place. One day the Buddha met him and uttered this verse in admonition.


16. Vitakkapamathitassa jantuno Þ
tibbaràgassa subhànupassino
Bhiyyo taõhà pavaóóhati Þ
esa kho daëha§ karoti bandhana§. 349.

17. Vitakkåpasame ca yo rato Þ
asubha§ bhàvayati sadà sato
Esa kho vyantikàhiti Þ
esa checchati màrabandhana§. 350.

 

CRAVING GROWS IN THE PASSIONATE

16. For the person who is perturbed by (evil) thoughts, who is exceedingly lustful, who contemplates pleasant things, craving increases more and more. Surely, he makes the bond (of Màra) stronger. 349.

THE MINDFUL END CRAVING

17. He who delights in subduing (evil) thoughts, who meditates on “the loathesomeness” 11 (of the body) who is ever mindful – it is he who will make an end (of craving). He will sever Màra’s bond. 350.

Story

    A young monk was tempted by a woman who had fallen in love with him. As he was chafing under the Holy Life he was taken to the Buddha. He then related the cause of his discontent. The Buddha related an incident from a previous life of the young monk to show how he had been betrayed by that particular woman earlier too, and He uttered these verse.


18. Niññhaïgato asantàsã Þ
vãtataõho anaïgaõo
Acchindi bhavasallàni Þ
antimo’ya§ samussayo. 351.

19. Vãtataõho anàdàno Þ
niruttipadakovido
Akkharàna§ sannipàta§ Þ
ja¤¤à pubbaparàni ca
Sa ve antimasàrãro Þ
mahàpa¤¤o mahàpuriso’ti vuccati. 352.

 

HE WHO IS FREE FROM CRAVING IS IN HIS FINAL LIFE

18. He who has reached the goal, is fearless, is without craving, is passionless, has cut off the thorns of life. This is his final body. 351.

THE NON-ATTACHED PERSON IS A GREAT SAGE

19. He who is without craving and grasping, who is skilled in etymology and terms, 12 who knows the grouping of letters and their sequence – it is he who is called the bearer of the final body, one of profound wisdom, a great man. 352.

Story

    A young novice who had attained Arahantship lay asleep in front of the Buddha’s Perfumed Chamber. Màra came to frighten him. The Buddha, perceiving him, declared that he who had destroyed craving was fearless.


20. Sabbàbhibhå sabbavidå’ ham asmi Þ
sabbesu dhammesu anåpalitto
Sabba¤jaho taõhakkhaye vimutto Þ
saya§ abhi¤¤àya kam uddiseyya§. 353.

 

THE OMNISCIENT ONE HAS NO TEACHER

20. All have I overcome, all do I know. From all am I detached. All have I renounced. Wholly absorbed am I in “the destruction of craving”. 13 Having comprehended all by myself, whom shall I call my teacher? 353.

Story

    Upaka, a wandering ascetic, pleased with the Buddha’s countenance, questioned Him about His teacher. The Buddha replied that He has no teacher.


21. Sabbadàna§ dhammadàna§ jinàti Þ
sabba§ rasa§ dhammaraso jinàti
Sabba§ rati§ dhammaratã jinàti Þ
taõhakkhayo sabbadukkha§ jinàti. 354.

 

THE GIFT OF TRUTH EXCELS ALL OTHER GIFTS

21. The gift of Truth excels all (other) gifts. The flavour of Truth excels all (other) flavours. The pleasure in Truth excels all (other) pleasures. He who has destroyed craving overcomes all sorrow. 354.

Story

    In reply to four questions raised by Sakka King of the gods, the Buddha uttered this verse.


22. Hananti bhogà dummedha§ Þ
no ve pàragavesino
Bhogataõhàya dummedho Þ
hanti a¤¤e’ va attanà. 355.

 

RICHES RUIN THE IGNORANT

22. Riches ruin the foolish, but not those in quest of the Beyond (Nibbàna). Through craving for riches the ignorant man ruins himself as (if he were ruining) others. 355.

Story

    A childless treasurer died leaving all his wealth. The King ordered all his wealth to be removed to the Royal Treasury and went to see the Buddha. He related what had happened and remarked that although the Buddha dwelt close by the treasurer had not given any alms to Him. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


23. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
ràgadosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vãtaràgesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 356.
24. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
dosadosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vãtadosesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 357.
25. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
mohadosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vãtamohesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 358.
26. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
icchàdosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vigaticchesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 359.

 

LUST IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND

23. Weeds are the bane of fields, lust is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those lustless yields abundant fruit. 356.

HATRED IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND

24. Weeds are the bane of fields, hatred is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those rid of hatred yields abundant fruit. 357.

DELUSION IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND

25. Weeds are the bane of fields, delusion is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those rid of delusion yields abundant fruit. 358.

DESIRE IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND

26. Weeds are the bane of fields, craving is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those rid of craving yields abundant fruit. 359.

Story

    Commenting on the merits acquired by those who give to the Pure, the Buddha uttered these verses.


End Notes

1 Craving is threefold, viz: craving for sensual pleasures (kàmataõhà), craving connected with the notion of eternalism (bhavataõhà), and craving connected with the notion of nihilism (vibhavataõhà).

Craving for personal sense-fields, such as eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind, and for external sense-fields, such as form, sound, scent, taste, contact, and dhammas (mental objects), when viewed in the foregoing three aspects, divides itself into thirty-six varieties. When they are viewed according to past, present, and future they become one hundred and eight.

Bhavataõhà may also be interpreted as attachment to life or Realms of Form, and vibhavataõhà as attachment to annihilation or Formless Realms.

2 Passions.

3 See note on v. 334.

4 Through the six sense-doors.

5 That is, from the six sense-doors.

6 Resting on the six sense-objects.

7 There are five kinds of bonds (saïga) – namely: lust, hatred, delusion, pride, and false views.

8 Here is a pun on the two meanings of vana, forest and desire.

9 Editor’s note: The text here actually reads vajanti dhãrà, as in the following verse; but Ven Nàrada translates: `leave the world’ which can only refer to paribbajanti as in other editions.

10 That is, attachment to the past, present, and future Aggregates.

11 This is the meditation on the impurities of the body by practising which one can get rid of attachment to the body.

12 Niruttipadakovido – versed in the four kinds of analytical knowledge (pañisambhidà) – namely: meaning (attha), text (dhamma), etymology (nirutti), and understanding (pañibhàna).

13 Arahantship.


25- Bhikkhu Vagga

June 19, 2018

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Chapter 25

monk3
The Bhikkhu Or The Mendicant
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Cakkhunà sanvaro sàdhu – sàdhu sotena sanvaro
Ghànena sanvaro sàdhu –  sàdhu jivhàya sanvaro. 360.

2. Kàyena sanvaro sàdhu – sàdhu vàcàya sanvaro
Manasà sanvaro sàdhu – sàdhu sabbattha sanvaro
Sabbattha sanvuto bhikkhu – sabba dukkhà pamuccati. 

 

GUARD THE SENSES

1. Good is restraint in the eye; good is restraint in the ear;
good is restraint in the nose; good is restraint in the tongue. 360.

HE WHO GUARDS HIS SENSES IS RELEASED FROM SORROW

2. Good is restraint in deed; good is restraint in speech;
good is restraint in mind; good is restraint in everything.
The bhikkhu, 1 restrained at all points, 2
 is freed from sorrow. 361.

Story

    Five monks each of whom was guarding one of the senses inquired of the Buddha which sense was the most difficult to restrain. Instead of answering the question directly the Buddha related a story from one of their past births to show that they had come to destruction because their senses were not guarded, and then He uttered these verses.


3. Hattha sannato pàda sannato – vàcàya sangngato sagnuththamo
Ajjhattarato samàhito – eko santusito tam àhu bhikkhu§. 362.

 

THE FULLY CONTROLLED PERSON IS CALLED A BHIKKHU

3. He who is controlled in hand, in foot, in speech, and in the highest (i.e., the head);
he who delights in meditation, 3
 and is composed;
he who is alone, and is contented – him they call a bhikkhu. 362.

Story

    A monk killed a flying swan by hitting it in the eye with a stone. The Buddha, advising him, explained the state of a bhikkhu.


4. Yo mukha sagnato bhikkhu Þ
manta bhàni anuddhato
Atthan  dhammanca deepeti Þ
madhuran tassa bhàsitan. 363.

 

SWEET IS HIS SPEECH WHO CONTROLS HIS TONGUE

4. The bhikkhu who is controlled in tongue,  ( talks only when needed)
who speaks wisely, 4 who is not with jumbled mind,
who explains the meaning and the text –
sweet, indeed, is his speech. 363.

Story

    The Buddha uttered this verse at Dewram Wehera with reference to a monk named Kokalika who reviled against the two Chief Disciples. The earth opened up and the Bhikku Kokalika who abused the Chief Disciples fell in to the hell “Paduma”  Afterwards whethe bhikkus were discussing this saying that because of his bad mouthing Kokalika perished . Then the blessed one uttered these verses and told them the now popular story of the tortoise and the two cranes .


5. Dhammàràmo dhammarato Þ
dhamman  anuvi cintayan 
Dhamman  anussaran  bhikkhu Þ
saddhammà na parihàyati. 364.

 

HE WHO FINDS PLEASURE IN THE DHAMMA DOES NOT FALL

5. That bhikkhu who dwells in the Dhamma, who delights in the Dhamma,
who meditates on the Dhamma, who well remembers the Dhamma,
does not fall away from the sublime Dhamma. 364.

Story

    A monk, named Dhammàràma, knowing that the Buddha would soon pass away, refrained from mingling with the other monks and instead used to meditate on the Dhamma with the object of attaining Arahantship. Misconstruing his attitude, the monks reported the matter to the Buddha. When the monk explained his object in doing what he did, the Buddha applauded him and uttered this verse.


6. Salàbhan  naati sangeyya Þ
n’aagnngesan piyahan bhikku 
Angnesan pihayan bhikkhu Þ
samàdhin’ Naadhigacchati. 365.

7. Appa làbho’ pi ce bhikkhu Þ
salàbhan  n’aatimagngnati
Tan  ve devà pasansanti Þ
suddhaa jeevin  atanditan. 366.

 

BE CONTENTED

6. Let him not despise what he has received,
nor should he live envying (the gains of) others.
The bhikkhu who envies (the gains of) others
does not attain concentration. 
5 365.

DESPISE NOT WHAT ONE GETS

7. Though receiving but little, if a bhikkhu does not despise his own gains, even the gods praise such a one who is pure in livelihood and is not slothful. 366.

Story

    A monk, accepting an invitation from a monk who was a follower of the Venerable Devadatta, spent a few days enjoying his hospitality. When he returned to the monastery the other monks mentioned the matter to the Buddha. Thereupon the Buddha uttered these verses in admonition to him and other monks.


8. Sabbaso nàamarupasmin Þ
yassa natthi mamàyitan
Asatà ca na socati Þ
sa ve bhikkhå’ ti vuccati. 367.

 

HE IS A BHIKKHU WHO HAS NO ATTACHMENT

8. He who has no thought of “l” and “mine”
whatever towards mind and body,
he who grieves not for that which he has not,
he is, indeed, called a bhikkhu.
367.

Story

    A devotee offered alms to the Buddha when He stood at his door and wished to know what constituted a bhikkhu. Briefly the Buddha described the attributes of a bhikkhu.


9. Mettàvihàri yo bhikkhu Þ
pasanno Buddha sàsane
Adhigacche padan santan Þ
saïkhà rupasaman sukhan. 368.

10. Signca bhikkhu iman naàvan Þ
sittà te lahum essati
Chetvà ràgan ca dosan ca Þ
tato nibbànam ehisi. 369.

11. Panca chinde panca jahe Þ
panca chuttari bhàvaye
Panca sangaàtigo bhikkhu Þ
ogha thinnõo’ ti vuccati. 370.

12. Jhàya bhikkhu mà ca pàmado Þ
mà te kàma gune bhamassu cittan
Mà lohagulan gili pamatto Þ
mà kandi dukkha midan’ti dayhamàno. 371.

13. Natthi jhàna§ apannassa Þ
pa¤¤à natthi ajhàyato
Yamhi jhàna¤ ca pa¤¤à ca Þ
sa ve nibbànasantike. 372.

14. Su¤¤àgàra§ paviññhassa Þ
santacittassa bhikkhuno
Amànusã rati hoti Þ
sammà dhamma§ vipassato. 373.

15. Yato yato sammasati Þ
khandhàna§ udayabbaya§
Labhati pãti pàmojja§ Þ
amata§ ta§ vijànata§. 374.

16. Tatràyam àdi bhavati Þ
idha pa¤¤assa bhikkhuno:
Indriyagutti santuññhã Þ
pàtimokkhe ca sa§varo. 375.

17. Mitte bhajassu kalyàõe Þ
suddh’ ƒjãve atandite
Pañisanthàravuty’ assa Þ
àcàrakusalo siyà
Tato pàmojjabahulo Þ
dukkhass’ anta§ karissasi. 376.

 

THE BHIKKHU WHO RADIATES LOVING-KINDNESS RADIATES PEACE

9. The bhikkhu who abides in loving-kindness, 6 who is pleased with the Buddha’s Teaching, attains to that state of peace and happiness, 7 the stilling of conditioned things. 368.

GIVE UP LUST AND HATRED

10. Empty this boat, 8 O bhikkhu! Emptied by you it will move swiftly. Cutting off lust and hatred, to Nibbàna you will thereby go. 369.

FLOOD-CROSSER IS ONE
WHO HAS GIVEN UP THE FETTERS

11. Five cut off, 9 five give up, 10 five further cultivate. 11 The bhikkhu who has gone beyond the five bonds 12 is called a “Flood-Crosser”. 370.

MEDITATE EARNESTLY

12. Meditate, O bhikkhu! Be not heedless. Do not let your mind whirl on sensual pleasures. Do not be careless and swallow a ball of lead. As you burn cry not “This is sorrow”. 371.

THERE IS NO WISDOM IN THOSE WHO DO NOT THINK

13. There is no concentration in one who lacks wisdom, nor is there wisdom in him who lacks concentration. In whom are both concentration and wisdom, he, indeed, is in the presence of Nibbàna. 372.

HE WHO IS CALM EXPERIENCES TRANSCENDENTAL JOY

14. The bhikkhu who has retired to a lonely abode, who has calmed his mind, who perceives the doctrine clearly, experiences a joy transcending that of men. 13 373.

HE IS HAPPY WHO REFLECTS ON RISE AND FALL

15. Whenever he reflects on the rise and fall of the Aggregates, he experiences joy and happiness. To “those who know” that (reflection 14) is Deathless. 374.

A WISE BHIKKHU MUST POSSESS HIS CARDINAL VIRTUES

16. And this becomes the beginning here for a wise bhikkhu: sense-control, contentment, restraint with regard to the Fundamental Code (Pàtimokkha 15), association with beneficent and energetic friends whose livelihood is pure. 375.

A BHIKKHU SHOULD BE CORDIAL IN ALL HIS WAYS

17. Let him be cordial in his ways and refined in conduct; filled thereby with joy, he will make an end of ill. 376.

Story

    A monk, seated in a specially constructed pavilion was preaching the Dhamma one night to his mother and many others. Some robbers entered her house meanwhile. Their ring-leader shadowed the woman, intending to kill her if she should return home before they had done their fell work. Thrice a servant-maid came and informed her about the robbers, but she sent her away asking her not to disturb her while listening to the Dhamma. The ring-leader was impressed by her devotion. He went up to the robbers and ordered them to restore all the stolen property. Then they all came and asked forgiveness from the devout woman and all became monks. When they were engaged in meditation the Buddha projected an image of Himself before them and in admonition uttered these verses.


18. Vassikà viya pupphàni Þ
maddavàni pamu¤cati
Eva§ ràga¤ ca dosa¤ ca Þ
vippamu¤cetha bhikkhavo. 377.

 

CAST OFF LUST AND HATRED

18. As the jasmine creeper sheds its withered flowers, even so, O bhikkhus, should you totally cast off lust and hatred. 377.

Story

    Some monks, observing the falling of some withered jasmine flowers, were stimulated to practise meditation more strenuously. The Buddha, perceiving them, projected an image of Himself before them and uttered this verse.


19. Santakàyo santavàco Þ
santavà susamàhito
Vantalokàmiso bhikkhu Þ
upasanto’ ti vuccati. 378.

 

HE IS PEACEFUL WHO IS FREE FROM ALL WORLDLY THINGS

19. The bhikkhu who is calm in body, calm in speech, calm in mind, who is well-composed, who has spewed out worldly things, is truly called a “peaceful one”. 378.

Story

    A monk was very calm and quiet and his composed demeanour attracted the attention of the other monks. The Buddha, hearing of his exemplary behaviour, advised the monks to emulate him and uttered this verse.


 

20. Attanà coday’ attàna§ Þ
pañimàse attam attanà 
16
So attagutto satimà Þ
sukha§ bhikkhu vihàhisi. 379.
21. Attà hi attano nàtho Þ
attà hi attano gati
Tasmà sa¤¤amay’ attàna§ Þ
assa§ bhadra§’ va vàõijo. 380.

 

HE WHO GUARDS HIMSELF LIVES HAPPILY

20. By self do you censure yourself. By self do you examine yourself. Self-guarded and mindful, O bhikkhu, you will live happily. 379.

YOU ARE YOUR OWN SAVIOUR

21. Self, indeed, is the protector of self. Self, indeed, is one’s refuge. Control, therefore, your own self as a merchant controls a noble steed. 380.

Story

    A poor ploughman who had for his only possessions his loin cloth and his plough became a monk. Several times he thought of leaving the robe, but finally, taking for his object of meditation his loin cloth and plough which he had preserved, he attained Arahantship. Commenting on his success, the Buddha uttered these verses.


 

22. Pàmojjabahulo bhikkhu Þ
pasanno buddhasàsane
Adhigacche pada§ santa§ Þ
saïkhàråpasama§ sukha§. 381.

 

WITH JOY AND FAITH TRY TO WIN YOUR GOAL

22. Full of joy, full of confidence in the Buddha’s Teaching, the bhikkhu will attain the Peaceful State, the stilling of conditioned things, the bliss (supreme). 381.

Story

    A monk, fascinated by the personality of the Buddha, used to gaze constantly at Him. The Buddha advised him not to do so and remarked that he who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha. The frustrated monk attempted to commit suicide by jumping off a rock. The Buddha, perceiving him, projected His image before him. The monk overcame his grief and felt happy. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse. The monk meditated and attained Arahantship.


 

23. Yo have daharo bhikkhu Þ
yu¤jati buddhasàsane
So ima§ loka§ pabhàseti Þ
abbhà mutto’ va candimà. 382.

 

EVEN A YOUNG MONK, IF DEVOUT,
CAN ILLUMINE THE WHOLE WORLD

23. The bhikkhu who, while still young, devotes himself to the Buddha’s Teaching, illumines this world like the moon freed from a cloud. 382.

Story

    Praising a young novice for his psychic powers, the Buddha uttered this verse.


End Notes

1 Bhikkhu is exclusively a Buddhist term. “Mendicant monk” may be suggested as the best English equivalent.

2 That is, in all senses, literally, everywhere.

3 Here the Pali term ajjhatta, literally, personal, refers to the subject of meditation.

4 Manta here means wisdom.

5 Samàdhi, both mundane and supramundane concentration.

6 Having developed the third and fourth jhànas (ecstasies) with mettà (loving-kindness) as the object of meditation.

7 That is, Nibbàna.

8 The boat resembles the body, water resembles bad thoughts.

9 They are the five fetters (orambhàgiya sa§yojana) that pertain to this shore – namely: self-illusion (sakkàyadiññhi), doubt (vicikicchà), indulgence in (wrongful) rites and ceremonies (sãlabbataparàmàsa), sense-desire (kàmaràga), and hatred (pañigha).

10 They are the five fetters that pertain to the Farther Shore (uddhambhàgiyasa§yojana), namely: attachment to the Realms of Form (råparàga), attachment to the Formless Realms (aråparàga), conceit (màna), restlessness (uddhacca), and ignorance (avijjà).

11 Namely: confidence (saddhà), mindfulness (sati), effort (viriya), concentration (samàdhi), and wisdom (pa¤¤à). These five factors have to be cultivated if one desires to destroy the fetters.

12 See note under v. 342.

13 Amànusã ratã = the eight Attainments (aññhasamàpatti), the four Råpa Jhànas and the four Aråpa Jhànas.

14 As it leads to Nibbàna.

15 Pàtimokkha which deals with the rules that a bhikkhu is bound to observe.

16 Pañima§setha attanà in some books


23- Nàga Vagga

June 19, 2018

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Chapter 23

the-majestic-elephant
The Elephant
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Aha§ nàgo’ va saïgàme Þ
càpàto patita§ sara§
Ativàkya§ titikkhissa§ Þ
dussãlo hi bahujjano. 320.
2. Danta§ nayanti samiti§ Þ
danta§ ràjàbhiråhati
Danto seññho manussesu Þ
yo’ tivàkya§ titikkhati. 321.
3. Varam assatarà dantà Þ
àjànãyà ca sindhavà
Ku¤jarà ca mahànàgà Þ
attadanto tato vara§. 322.

 

THE MAJORITY ARE UNDISCIPLINED

1. As an elephant in the battlefield withstands the arrows shot from a bow, even so will I endure abuse; verily most people are undisciplined. 320.

THE CULTURED ENDURE ABUSE

2. They lead the trained (horses or elephants) to an assembly. The king mounts the trained animal. Best among men are the trained who endure abuse. 321.

BLESSED IS HE WHO CONTROLS HIMSELF

3. Excellent are trained mules, so are thoroughbred horses of Sindh and noble tusked elephants; but far better is he who has trained himself. 322.

Story

    Bribed by a lady of the court who had a grudge against the Buddha, many people severely abused the Buddha. The Venerable ânanda, unable to endure such abuse, suggested to the Buddha that He leave the place and go to another city. But the Buddha advised him to practise patience and compared Himself to an elephant who had entered the battlefield prepared to endure all attacks.


 

4. Na hi etehi yànehi Þ
gaccheyya agata§ disa§
Yathà’ ttanà sudantena Þ
danto dantena gacchati. 323.

 

SELF-CONTROL LEADS TO ONE’S GOAL

4. Surely never by those vehicles would one go to the untrodden land (Nibbàna) as does one who is controlled through his subdued 1 and well-trained 2 self. 323.

Story

    A monk who had been an elephant-trainer was watching an elephant-trainer failing to control the animal. He made a suggestion to another monk. The elephant-trainer overheard it and, adopting the suggestion, succeeded. When this matter was reported to the Buddha, the monk was advised to train himself to reach his ultimate goal.


 

5. Dhanapàlako nàma ku¤jaro Þ
kañukappabhedano dunnivàrayo
Baddho kabala§ na bhu¤jati Þ
sumarati nàgavanassa ku¤jaro. 324.

 

AN ELEPHANT CARED FOR HIS MOTHER

5. The uncontrollable, captive tusker named Dhanapàlaka, with pungent juice flowing, eats no morsel; the tusker calls to mind the elephant forest. 324.

Story

    An old man was neglected by his children. One day he went to see the Buddha, who made a suggestion to him which proved very successful. Later, the children tenderly cared for their father. Commenting on their attention, the Buddha uttered this verse to show the loving care of a captive elephant towards its mother.


 

6. Middhã yadà hoti mahagghaso ca Þ
niddàyità samparivattasàyã
Mahàvaràho’ va nivàpapuññho Þ
punappuna§ gabbham upeti mando. 325.

 

BE MODERATE IN EATING

6. The stupid one, when he is torpid, gluttonous, sleepy, rolls about lying like a great hog nourished on pig-wash, goes to rebirth again and again. 325.

Story

    Owing to overeating King Kosala had to experience much discomfort. As advised by the Buddha he became moderate in eating and improved in health.


 

7. Ida§ pure cittam acàri càrika§ Þ
yena’icchaka§ yatthakàma§ yathàsukha§
Tadajj’ aha§ niggahessàmi yoniso Þ
hatthippabhinna§ viya aïkusaggaho. 326.

 

CONTROL YOUR THOUGHTS

7. Formerly this mind went wandering where it liked, as it wished and as it listed. Today with attentiveness I shall completely hold it in check, as a mahout (holds in check) an elephant in must. 326.

Story

A young novice who led a very virtuous life later desired to leave the Order. But his mother dissuaded him from doing so. Finally he realized the manifold advantages of the Holy Life. The Buddha uttered this verse in admonition.


 

8. Appamàdaratà hotha Þ
sacittam anurakkhatha
Duggà uddharath’ attàna§ Þ
païke sanno’ va ku¤jaro. 327.

 

AVOID THE EVIL WAY

8. Take delight in heedfulness. Guard your mind well. Draw yourselves out of the evil way as did the elephant sunk in the mire. 327.

Story

    An elephant got stuck in the mud. The mahout appeared as if ready for battle and battle drums were also beaten. Soon the elephant exerted itself and extricated itself from the mud. This matter was reported to the Buddha and He advised the monks to exert themselves as did the elephant stuck in mud.


 

9. Sace labetha nipaka§ sahàya§ Þ
saddhi§ cara§ sàdhuvihàridhãra§
Abhibhuyya sabbàni parissayàni Þ
careyya ten’ attamano satãmà. 328.
10. No ce labetha nipaka§ sahàya§ Þ
saddhi§ cara§ sàdhuvihàridhãra§
Ràjà’ va raññha§ vijita§ pahàya Þ
eko care màtaïgara¤¤’ eva nàgo. 329.
11. Ekassa carita§ seyyo Þ
natthi bàle sahàyatà
Eko care na ca pàpàni kayirà Þ
appossukko màtaïgara¤¤’ eva nàgo. 330.

 

ASSOCIATE WITH THE WISE

9. If you get a prudent companion (who is fit) to live with you, who behaves well and is wise, you should live with him joyfully and mindfully, overcoming all dangers. 328.

WANDER ALONE IF THERE IS NO SUITABLE COMPANION

10. If you do not get a prudent companion who (is fit) to live with you, who behaves well and is wise, then like a king who leaves a conquered kingdom, you should live alone as an elephant does in the elephant forest. 329.

A SOLITARY CAREER IS BETTER

11. Better it is to live alone. There is no fellowship 3 with the ignorant. Let one live alone doing no evil, care-free, like an elephant in the elephant forest. 330.

Story

    The Buddha on one occasion lived alone in a forest. Commenting on His solitary life, the Buddha uttered these verses.


 

12. Atthamhi jàtamhi sukhà sahàyà Þ
tuññhã sukhà yà itarãtarena
Pu¤¤a§ sukha§ jãvitasaïkhayamhi Þ
sabbassa dukkhassa sukha§ pahàna§. 331.
13. Sukhà matteyyatà loke Þ
atho petteyyatà sukhà
Sukhà sàma¤¤atà loke Þ
atho brahma¤¤atà sukhà. 332.
14. Sukha§ yàva jarà sãla§ Þ
sukhà saddhà patiññhità
Sukho pa¤¤àya pañilàbho Þ
pàpàna§ akaraõa§ sukha§. 333.

 

BLESSED ARE FRIENDS IN NEED

12. When need arises, pleasant (is it to have) friends. Pleasant is it to be content with just this and that. Pleasant is merit when life is at an end. Pleasant is the shunning of all ill. 331.

BLESSED IS MINISTERING UNTO PARENTS

13. Pleasant in this world is ministering to mother. 4 Ministering to father too is pleasant in this world. Pleasant is ministering to ascetics. Pleasant too is ministering to the Noble Ones. 5 332.

BLESSED ARE VIRTUE, FAITH AND WISDOM

14. Pleasant is virtue (continued) until old age. Pleasant is steadfast confidence. Pleasant is the attainment of wisdom. Pleasant is it to do no evil. 333.

Story

    Màra, the Evil one, invited the Buddha to become a King. The Buddha remarked that He has nothing in common with him and mentioned the causes of happiness.


End Notes

1 Dantena by sense-control.

2 Sudantena by the development of the Noble Path.

3 Sahàyatà. By this term are meant morality, austere practices, insight, Paths, Fruits and Nibbàna. (Commentary) See v. 61.

4 Matteyyatà does not mean motherhood or “to have a mother”. The Commentarial explanation is good conduct (sammà-pañipatti) towards the mother, that is, ministering to the mother. The other terms are similarly explained.

5 The Buddha, the Arahants, and so on.


22 – Niraya Vagga

June 19, 2018

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Chapter 22


Woeful State
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Abhåtavàdã niraya§ upeti Þ
yo c’àpi katvà na karomã’ti c’àha
Ubho’ pi te pecca samà bhavanti Þ
nihãnakammà manujà parattha. 306.

 

LIARS SUFFER

1. The speaker of untruth goes to a woeful state, and also he who, having done aught, says, “I did not”. Both after death become equal, men of base actions in the other world. 306.

Story

    In order to disparage the Buddha a woman was killed by some villains hired by a heretical sect and the corpse was concealed in a rubbish heap near the Buddha’s Perfumed Chamber. Later, the murderers confessed their guilt implicating the heretics. Discoursing on the evil of false accusation, the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

2. Kàsàvakaõñhà bahavo Þ
pàpadhammà asa¤¤atà
Pàpà pàpehi kammehi Þ
niraya§ te upapajjare. 307.

 

CORRUPT MONKS SUFFER

2. Many with a yellow robe on their necks are of evil disposition and uncontrolled. Evil-doers on account of their evil deeds are born in a woeful state. 307.

Story

    The Venerable Moggallàna saw a skeleton-like Peta all on fire. The Buddha attributed it to his corrupt life as a monk in a past birth.


 

3. Seyyo ayoguëo bhutto Þ
tatto aggisikhåpamo
Ya¤ ce bhu¤jeyya dussãlo Þ
raññhapiõóa§ asa¤¤ato. 308.

 

BE NOT IMMORAL

3. Better to swallow a red-hot iron ball (which would consume one) like a flame of fire, than to be an immoral and uncontrolled person feeding on the alms offered by people. 308.

Story

Rebuking some monks who, for the sake of their stomach, attributed to one another higher spiritual Attainments without possessing them, the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

4. Cattàri ñhànàni naro pamatto Þ
àpajjati paradàråpasevã
Apu¤¤alàbha§ na nikàmaseyya§ Þ
ninda§ tatiya§ niraya§ catuttha§. 309.
5. Apu¤¤alàbho ca gatã ca pàpikà Þ
bhãtassa bhãtàya ratã ca thokikà
Ràjà ca daõóa§ garuka§ paõeti Þ
tasmà naro paradàra§ na seve. 310.

 

ADULTERY IS EVIL

4. Four misfortunes befall a careless man who commits adultery: acquisition of demerit, disturbed sleep, thirdly blame, and fourthly a state of woe. 309.

5. There is acquisition of demerit as well as evil destiny. Brief is the joy of the frightened man and woman. The King imposes a heavy punishment. Hence no man should frequent another’s wife. 310.

Story

    A handsome youth committed adultery. Several times he was taken prisoner before the King and was released in deference to his wealthy father. Finally the father took him to the Buddha who advised the youth on the evils of adultery.


 

6. Kuso yathà duggahito Þ
hattham evànukantati
Sàma¤¤a§ dupparàmaññha§ Þ
nirayàyupakaóóhati. 311.
7. Ya§ ki¤ci sithila§ kamma§ Þ
saïkiliññha¤ ca ya§ vata§
Saïkassara§ brahmacariya§ Þ
na ta§ hoti mahapphala§. 312.
8. Kayirà ce kayiràthena§ Þ
daëham ena§ parakkame
Sithilo hi paribbàjo Þ
bhiyyo àkirate raja§. 313.

 

CORRUPT LIVES ENTAIL SUFFERING
A LIFE OF DUBIOUS HOLINESS IS NOT COMMENDABLE
WHAT IS PROPER SHOULD BE DONE WITH ONE’S WHOLE MIGHT

6. Just as kusa grass, wrongly grasped, cuts the hand, even so the monkhood wrongly handled drags one to a woeful state. 311.

7. Any loose act, any corrupt practice, a life of dubious 1 holiness – none of these is of much fruit. 312.

8. If aught should be done, let one do it. Let one promote it steadily, for slack asceticism scatters dust all the more. 313.

Story

    A presumptuous monk deliberately committed a wrong act by pulling out blades of grass. The Buddha, rebuking him, uttered these verses.


 

9. Akata§ dukkata§ seyyo Þ
pacchà tapati dukkata§
Kata¤ ca sukata§ seyyo Þ
ya§ katvà n’ƒnutappati. 314.

 

DON’T DO EVEN A SLIGHT WRONG

9. An evil deed is better not done: a misdeed torments one hereafter. Better it is to do a good deed, after doing which one does not grieve. 314.

Story

    A jealous woman cruelly punished a maidservant with whom her husband had misconducted himself. When both husband and wife were listening to a sermon from the Buddha the maid-servant came there and related the whole incident. Thereupon the Buddha advised them to do no evil.


 

10. Nagara§ yathà paccanta§ Þ
gutta§ santarabàhira§
Eva§ gopetha attàna§ Þ
khaõo vo mà upaccagà
Khaõàtãtà hi socanti Þ
nirayamhi samappità. 315.

 

GUARD YOURSELF LIKE A FORTIFIED CITY

10. Like a border city, guarded within and without, so guard yourself. Do not let slip this opportunity, 2 for they who let slip the opportunity grieve when born in a woeful state. 315.

Story

    Some monks who were spending their time in a frontier city led a life of discomfort as the people were busy fortifying their city to guard themselves from bandits. When the monks reported the matter to the Buddha, He advised them to fortify themselves.


 

11. Alajjitàye lajjanti Þ
lajjitàye na lajjare
Micchàdiññhisamàdànà Þ
sattà gacchanti duggati§. 316.
12. Abhaye ca bhayadassino Þ
bhaye cƒbhayadassino
Micchàdiññhisamàdànà Þ
sattà gacchanti duggati§. 317.

 

BE MODEST WHERE MODESTY IS NEEDED
HAVE NO FEAR IN THE NON-FEARSOME

11. Beings who are ashamed of what is not shameful, and are not ashamed of what is shameful, embrace wrong views and go to a woeful state. 316.

12. Beings who see fear in what is not to be feared, and see no fear in the fearsome, embrace false views and go to a woeful state. 317.

Story

    Some monks remarked that the Nigaõñhas 3 were better than the Acelaka ascetics, as the former, through modesty, covered their pudenda. The Nigaõñhas explained why they did so. The Buddha, hearing their discussion, uttered these verses.


 

13. Avajje vajjadassino Þ
vajje cƒvajjadassino
Micchàdiññhisamàdànà Þ
sattà gacchanti duggati§. 318.
14. Vajja¤ ca vajjato ¤atvà Þ
avajja¤ ca avajjato
Sammàdiññhisamàdànà Þ
sattà gacchanti suggati§. 319.

 

SEE NO WRONG IN WHAT IS NOT WRONG
SEE WRONG AS WRONG AND RIGHT AS RIGHT

13. Beings who imagine faults in the faultless, 4 and perceive no wrong in what is wrong, embrace false views and go to a woeful state. 318.

14. Beings knowing wrong as wrong and what is right as right, embrace right views and go to a blissful state. 319.

Story

    The children of some heretics were advised by their teacher not to salute the bhikkhus and not to visit the monastery. One day as they were playing with the children of the Buddha’s followers they felt thirsty. So the son of a lay follower was asked to get some water from the monastery. This child mentioned the matter to the Buddha who advised him to bring all the children to the monastery. After they had quenched their thirst the Buddha preached the Dhamma to them and they became His followers. The parents, hearing of their conversion, were at first displeased. Later, they all came to the Buddha and became His followers. Thereupon the Buddha uttered these verses.


End Notes

1 Saïkassara§ = to think or remember with suspicion.

2 The birth of a Buddha, a congenial habitation, a healthy body, the possession of right views, etc.

3 Nigaõñha, literally, “free from ties or bonds” is the term applied to Jaina ascetics, who, according to this story, cover their pudenda. Acelaka ascetics wander completely naked.

4 Avajja means right belief and vajja means wrong belief.