21- Pakinnaka Vagga

June 19, 2018

Home Page    Previous Chapter    Next Chapter

 

Chapter 21

Miscellaneous
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Mattàsukhapariccàgà Þ
passe ce vipula§ sukha§
Caje mattà sukha§ dhãro Þ
sampassa§ vipula§ sukha§. 290.

 

GIVE UP THE LESSER HAPPINESS FOR THE SAKE OF THE GREATER

1. If by giving up a lesser happiness, one may behold a greater one, let the wise man give up the lesser happiness in consideration of the greater happiness. 290.

Story

    Once the Buddha was invited to Vesali to secure for its inhabitants surcease from a visitation of famine, pestilence, and evil spirits. Many wonderful things happened when the Buddha visited the city. He attributed this to His having done meritorious actions in the past, renouncing minor pleasures.


 

2. Paradukkhåpadànena Þ
attano sukham icchati
Verasa§saggasa§saññho Þ
verà so na parimuccati. 291.

 

NOT HATRED FOR HATRED

2. He who wishes his own happiness by causing pain to others is not released from hatred, being himself entangled in the tangles of hatred. 291.

Story

    The mutual hatred of two persons continued through several rebirths. Finally the Buddha reconciled them and their hatred was appeased.


 

3. Ya§ hi kicca§ tadapaviddha§ Þ
akicca§ pana kayirati
Unnaëàna§ pamattàna§ Þ
tesa§ vaóóhanti àsavà. 292.
4. Yesa¤ ca susamàraddhà Þ
nicca§ kàyagatà sati
Akicca§ te na sevanti Þ
kicce sàtaccakàrino
Satàna§ sampajànàna§ Þ
attha§ gacchanti àsavà. 293.

 

THE DEFILEMENTS OF THE CONCEITED INCREASE
THE DEFILEMENTS OF THE MINDFUL DECREASE

3. What should have been done is left undone, 1 what should not have been done is done. 2 Of those who are puffed up and heedless the corruptions increase. 292.

4. Those who always earnestly practise “mindfulness of the body”, 3 who follow not what should not be done, and constantly do what should be done, of those mindful and reflective ones the corruptions come to an end. 293.

Story

    Some monks, interested in various kinds of ornamented sandals, neglected their duties as monks. The Buddha rebuked them and uttered these verses.


 

5. Màtara§ pitara§ hantvà Þ
ràjàno dve ca khattiye
Raññha§ sànucara§ hantvà Þ
anãgho yàti bràhmaõo. 294.
6. Màtara§ pitara§ hantvà Þ
ràjàno dve ca sotthiye
Veyyagghapa¤cama§ hantvà Þ
anãgho yàti bràhmaõo. 295.

 

ARAHANT GOES UNGRIEVING

5. Having slain mother 4 (craving) and father 5 (conceit) and two warrior kings (views based on eternalism and nihilism), and having destroyed a country (sense-avenues and sense-objects) together with its revenue officer 6 (attachment), ungrieving goes the Bràhmaõa (Arahant). 294.

6. Having slain mother and father and two brahmin kings, and having destroyed the perilous path 7 (hindrances), ungrieving goes the Bràhmaõa (Arahant). 295.

Story

    Pointing to an Arahant, who was comparatively short in stature, the Buddha uttered these verses to explain the state of an Arahant.


 

7. Suppabuddha§ pabujjhanti Þ
sadà Gotamasàvakà
Yesa§ divà ca ratto ca Þ
nicca§ buddhagatà sati. 296.
8. Suppabuddha§ pabujjhanti Þ
sadà Gotamasàvakà
Yesa§ divà ca ratto ca Þ
nicca§ dhammagatà sati. 297.
9. Suppabuddha§ pabujjhanti Þ
sadà Gotamasàvakà
Yesa§ divà ca ratto ca Þ
nicca§ saïghagatà sati. 298.
10. Suppabuddha§ pabujjhanti Þ
sadà Gotamasàvakà
Yesa§ divà ca ratto ca Þ
nicca§ kàyagatà sati. 299.
11. Suppabuddha§ pabujjhanti Þ
sadà Gotamasàvakà
Yesa§ divà ca ratto ca Þ
ahi§sàya rato mano. 300.
12. Suppabuddha§ pabujjhanti Þ
sadà Gotamasàvakà
yesa§ divà ca ratto ca Þ
bhàvanàya rato mano. 301.

 

MEDITATE ON THE BUDDHA, DHAMMA, SANGHA
BODY AND HARMLESSNESS
SEEK DELIGHT IN MEDITATION

7. Well awakened the disciples of Gotama ever arise – they who by day and night always contemplate the Buddha. 8 296.

8. Well awakened the disciples of Gotama ever arise – they who by day and night always contemplate the Dhamma. 9 297.

9. Well awakened the disciples of Gotama ever arise – they who by day and night always contemplate the Sangha. 10 298.

10. Well awakened the disciples of Gotama ever arise – they who by day and night always contemplate the body. 11 299.

11. Well awakened the disciples of Gotama ever arise – they who by day and night delight in harmlessness. 300.

12. Well awakened the disciples of Gotama ever arise – they who by day and night delight in meditation. 301.

Story

    A youth escaped from a demon by uttering the words “Praise be to the Buddha”. Later, that very demon and another helped him. The king, hearing the story, approached the Buddha and inquired whether meditation on the Buddha would be sufficient to ward off evil spirits. Thereupon the Buddha uttered these verses.


 

13. Duppabbajja§ durabhirama§ Þ
duràvàsà gharà dukhà
Dukkho’ samànasa§vàso Þ
dukkhànupatitaddhagå
Tasmà na c’addhagå siyà Þ
na ca dukkhànupatito siyà. 302.

 

HARD IS RENUNCIATION

13. Difficult is renunciation, difficult is it to delight therein. Difficult and painful is household life. Painful is association with those who are incompatible. Ill befalls a wayfarer (in sa§sàra). Therefore be not a wayfarer, be not a pursuer of ill. 302.

Story

    A prince became a monk and was meditating alone in a forest. At night he heard the festive music in the city and was discontented with his solitary life. A tree-deity encouraged him to take an interest in the lonely life . Later, the discontented monk went to the Buddha and related what had happened. Thereupon the Buddha discoursed to him on the difficulties of a worldly life.


 

14. Saddho sãlena sampanno Þ
yasobhogasamappito
Ya§ ya§ padesa§ bhajati Þ
tattha tattheva påjito. 303.

 

THE DEVOUT ARE RESPECTED EVERYWHERE

14. He who is full of confidence 12 and virtue, possessed of fame and wealth, he is honoured everywhere, in whatever land he sojourns. 303.

Story

    A devout follower was greatly honoured when he visited the Buddha. The Venerable ânanda inquired of the Buddha whether he would have received the same honours if he had visited some other religious teacher. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

15. Dåre santo pakàsanti Þ
himavanto’ va pabbato
Asant’ ettha na dissanti Þ
ratti khittà yathà sarà. 304.

 

THE GOOD CAN BE SEEN THOUGH FROM AFAR

15. Even from afar like the Himalaya mountain the good reveal themselves. The wicked, though near, are invisible like arrows shot by night. 304.

Story

    A daughter of Anàthapiõóika, named Culasubhaddà got married to a non-Buddhist and went to stay with her parents-in-law. In her honour alms was given to the naked ascetics. Although requested by her father-in-law to wait on them, her modesty would not let her do so. The father-in-law was offended. When she told about the Buddha and His disciples her mother-in-law requested her to invite them to a meal on the following day although at the time they were dwelling far away. Devout as she was she went into her room and sent out a thought-wave inviting the Buddha. Anàthapiõóika after listening to a sermon by the Buddha invited Him to a meal on the following day. The Buddha remarked that He had already accepted an invitation from his daughter who had been given in marriage. Anàthapiõóika expressed his surprise as she was living far away. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

16. Ekàsana§ ekaseyya§ Þ
eko caram atandito
Eko damayam attàna§ Þ
vanante ramito siyà. 305.

 

ALONE ONE DELIGHTS IN SOLITUDE

16. He who sits alone, rests alone, walks alone, unindolent, who in solitude controls himself, will find delight in the forest. 305.

Story

    Praising the life of solitude led by a monk, the Buddha uttered this verse.


End Notes

1 Observance of morality, practise of meditation, etc.

2 Such as decoration of umbrellas, sandals bowls, belts, etc.

3 Contemplation on the loathsomeness of the body.

4 Màtà = (mother) represents craving (taõhà) as it produces birth.

5 Pità = (father) represents “I-conceit”.

6 Sànucara§ = (revenue officer) here represents clinging to life (nandiràga).

7 Veyyagghapa¤cama§, this term is used to denote the five hindrances (nãvaraõa) of which doubt or indecision (vicikicchà) is the fifth. Veyyaggha means a perilous path infested with tigers. Doubt is comparable to such a path (Commentary). The other four hindrances are: sense-desire (kàmacchanda), ill-will (vyàpàda), restlessness and brooding (uddhacca-kukkucca), and slot and torpor (thãna-middha). They are called hindrances because they obstruct the path to heavenly bliss and Nibbàna.

8 Reflection on the virtues of the Buddha, the Enlightened One.

9 Reflection on the virtues of the Dhamma, the Teaching (of the Enlightened One).

10 Reflection on the virtues of the Sangha, the Noble Order of Disciples (of the Enlightened One).

11 Contemplation on the loathsomeness of the body.

12 Saddhà trustful confidence based on knowledge. Buddhism has no place for blind faith.

Advertisements

20- Magga Vagga

June 19, 2018

Home Page    Previous Chapter    Next Chapter

Chapter 20


The Way Or The Path
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Maggàn’ aññhaïgiko seññho Þ
saccàna§ caturo padà
Viràgo seññho dhammàna§ Þ
dipadàna¤ ca cakkhumà. 273.
2. Eso’va maggo natth’ a¤¤o Þ
dassanassa visuddhiyà
Etamhi tumhe pañipajjatha Þ
màrass’ eta§ pamohana§. 274.
3. Etamhi tumhe pañipannà Þ
dukkhassanta§ karissatha
Akkhàto ve mayà maggo Þ
a¤¤àya sallasatthana§. 275.
4. Tumhehi kicca§ àtappa§ Þ
akkhàtàro tathàgatà
Pañipannà pamokkhanti Þ
jhàyino màrabandhanà. 276.

 

THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IS THE BEST
FOLLOW THIS PATH FOR PURITY
FOLLOWING THIS PATH YOU CAN PUT AN END TO SUFFERING
YOU MUST EXERT YOURSELVES

1. The best of paths is the Eightfold Path. 1 The best of truths are the four Sayings. 2 Non-attachment 3 is the best of states. The best of bipeds is the Seeing One. 273.

2. This is the only Way. There is none other for the purity of vision. Do you follow this path. This is the bewilderment of Màra. 274.

3. Entering upon that path, you will make an end of pain. Having learnt the removal of thorns, 4 have I taught you the path. 275.

4. Striving should be done by yourselves; 5 the Tathàgatas 6 are only teachers. The meditative ones, who enter the way, are delivered from the bonds of Màra. 276.

Story

    When the Buddha returned to the monastery after his preaching tours some bhikkhus were discussing the smooth or the rough state of the paths they had trod. The Buddha remarked that those paths were irrelevant to their emancipation and advised them to follow the Eightfold path.


 

5. Sabbe saïkhàrà aniccà’ti Þ
yadà pa¤¤àya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe Þ
esa maggo visuddhiyà. 277.

 

TRANSIENT ARE CONDITIONED THINGS

5. “Transient are all conditioned things”: 7 when this, with wisdom, one discerns, then is one disgusted with ill; 8 this is the path to purity. 277.

Story

    The Buddha, perceiving that many monks had meditated on impermanence in the past, advised them to continue that meditation.


 

6. Sabbe saïkhàrà dukkhà’ti Þ
yadà pa¤¤àya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe Þ
esa maggo visuddhiyà. 278.

 

SORROWFUL ARE ALL CONDITIONED THINGS

6. “Sorrowful are all conditioned things”: when this, with wisdom, one discerns, then is one disgusted with ill; this is the path to purity. 278.

Story

    The Buddha, perceiving that many monks had meditated on sorrow in the past, advised them to continue that meditation.


 

7. Sabbe dhammà anattà’ ti Þ
yadà pa¤¤àya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe Þ
esa maggo visuddhiyà. 279.

 

EVERYTHING IS SOULLESS

7. “All Dhammas are without a soul”: 9 when this, with wisdom, one discerns, then is one disgusted with ill; this is the path to purity. 279.

Story

    The Buddha, perceiving that many monks had meditated on nor-soul in the past, advised them to continue that meditation.


 

8. Uññhànakàlamhi anuññhahàno Þ
yuvà balã àlasiya§ upeto
Sa§sannasaïkappamano kusãto Þ
pa¤¤àya magga§ alaso na vindati. 280.

 

THE SLOTHFUL DO NOT REALIZE THE PATH

8. The inactive idler who strives not when he should strive, who, though young and strong, is slothful, with (good) thoughts depressed, 10 does not by wisdom realize the Path. 280.

Story

Many fellow monks excluding one who remained behind in the monastery, went to the forest and attained Arahantship. when they returned the Buddha exchanged friendly greetings with them but not with the one who had remained behind. This action of the Buddha stimulated him to strive to attain Arahantship. He strove hard in the night but unfortunately met with an accident which brought his fellow monks to attend on him. The Buddha commented on the difficulty of realization by an idler.


 

9. Vàcànurakkhã manasà susa§vuto Þ
kàyena ca akusala§ na kayirà
Ete tayo kammapathe visodhaye Þ
àràdhaye magga§ isippavedita§. 281.

 

PURIFY THOUGHTS, WORDS AND DEEDS

9. Watchful of speech, well restrained in mind, let him do nought unskilful through his body. Let him purify these three ways of action and win the path realized by the sages. 281.

Story

    A monk, having divided by slander two monks who were friends, was reborn as a hideous Peta. The Venerable Moggallàna saw him and mentioned it to the Buddha, who also had seen him on an earlier occasion. The Buddha thereupon commented on the evil consequences of slandering.


 

10. Yogà ve jàyati bhåri Þ
ayogà bhårisaïkhayo
Eta§ dvedhà patha§ ¤atvà Þ
bhavàya vibhavàya ca
Tath’ attàna§ niveseyya Þ
yathà bhåri pavaóóhati. 282.

 

ACT IN SUCH A WAY THAT YOU INCREASE YOUR WISDOM

10. Verily, from meditation arises wisdom. Without meditation wisdom wanes. Knowing this twofold path of gain and loss, let one so conduct oneself that wisdom may increase. 282.

Story

    A monk, named Poñhila, though well versed in the Dhamma was constantly addressed by the Buddha as “Empty Poñhila” in order to stimulate him to attain Arahantship. The monk took the hint and went to a distant place to meditate. Accepting the advice of a young novice, he meditated in order to attain Arahantship. The Buddha, perceiving him with His Divine Eye, projected His image before him and uttered this verse.


 

11. Vana§ chindatha mà rukkha§ Þ
vanato jàyati bhaya§
Chetvà vana¤ ca vanatha¤ ca Þ
nibbanà hotha bhikkhavo. 283.
12. Yàva§ hi vanatho na chijjati Þ
aõumatto’ pi narassa nàrisu
Pañibaddhamano va tàva so Þ
vaccho khãrapako’ va màtari. 284.

 

BE WITHOUT ATTACHMENT
MIND IS IN BONDAGE AS LONG AS THERE IS ATTACHMENT

11. Cut down the forest (of the passions 11), but not real trees. 12 From the forest (of the passions) springs fear. Cutting down both forest 13 and brushwood (of the passions), be forestless, 14 O bhikkhus. 283.

12. For as long as the slightest brushwood (of the passions) of man towards women is not cut down, so long is his mind in bondage, like the milch calf to its mother-cow. 284.

Story

    Some old monks wept when an old woman who used to minister unto them died. The Buddha advised them to practise non-attachment.


 

13. Ucchinda sineham attano Þ
kumuda§ sàradika§’ va pàõinà
Santimaggam eva bråhaya Þ
nibbàna§ sugatena desita§. 285.

 

DEVELOP THE PATH OF PEACE

13. Cut off your affection, as though it were an autumn lily, with the hand. Cultivate the very path of peace. Nibbàna has been expounded by the Auspicious One. 285.

Story

    A young monk was meditating on the impurities of the body but with no effect. The Buddha, perceiving his disposition, gave him a lotus as a focus for mental concentration. The monk succeeded in his meditation, gained the jhànas and developing his faculties as advised by the Buddha, later attained Arahantship.


 

14. Idha vassa§ vasissàmi Þ
idha hemantagimhisu
Iti bàlo vicinteti Þ
antaràya§ na bujjhati. 286.

 

THE IGNORANT REALIZE NOT THE FEAR OF DEATH

14. Here will I live in the rainy season, here in the autumn and in the summer: thus muses the fool. He realizes not the danger (of death). 286.

Story

    A merchant with his retinue halted by a river. There was heavy rain and he thought of selling his goods and spending the various seasons there. The Buddha perceived that the man would die in seven days. The Venerable ânanda called on the merchant and informed him of his impending death. He was filled with remorse and, inviting the Buddha and the Sangha, gave them alms. The Buddha advised him to meditate on death. He did so and later attained the first state of Sainthood and passed away as predicted.


 

15. Ta§ puttapasusammatta§ Þ
byàsattamanasa§ nara§
Sutta§ gàma§ mahogho’ va Þ
maccu àdàya gacchati. 287.

 

DEATH SEIZES THE DOTING MAN

15. The doting man with mind set on children and herds, death seizes and carries away, as a great flood (sweeps away) a slumbering village. 287.

Story

A young mother named Kisà Gotami, lost her only child. As she had never come across an instance of death she carried the corpse on her hip believing the child to be ill and searching for a remedy. A wise man directed her to the Buddha who advised her to collect some mustard seed from a household where none had died. She got mustard but found no household where none had died. The Truth dawned upon her. When she returned, the Buddha preached the Dhamma to her. She became a nun. One day she observed the flickering of a lamp and reflected on the impermanence of life. The Buddha projected His image before her and uttered this stanza comparing life to a flickering lamp.


 

16. Na santi puttà tàõàya Þ
na pità na’ pi bandhavà
Antakenàdhipannassa Þ
natthi ¤àtisu tàõatà. 288.
17. Etam atthavasa§ ¤atvà Þ
paõóito sãlasa§vuto
Nibbànagamana§ magga§ Þ
khippam eva visodhaye. 289.

 

NO PROTECTION FROM ANY AT THE MOMENT OF DEATH

16. There are no sons for one’s protection, neither father nor even kinsmen; for one who is overcome by death no protection is to be found among kinsmen. 288.

17. Realizing this fact, let the virtuous and wise person swiftly clear the way that leads to Nibbàna. 289.

Story

    A woman, named Pañàcàrà, lost her near and dear ones under tragic circumstances. She went mad and was running about the street. The Buddha had compassion on her and consoled her, uttering these verses.


End Notes

1 The Eightfold Path is the Middle Way discovered by the Buddha for the realization of Nibbàna. It consists of: right understanding(sammà diññhi), right thoughts (sammà saïkappa), right speech (sammà vàcà), right action (sammà kammanta), right livelihood (sammà àjãva), right effort (sammà vàyàma), right mindfulness (sammà sati), and right concentration (sammà samàdhi).

This is the unique path of Enlightenment. From a philosophical stand-point these eight factors are the eight mental states found in the supramundane consciousness which has Nibbàna for its object.

2 They are the four Noble Truths – suffering, the cause of suffering, the destruction of suffering, and the path leading to the destruction of suffering. The first truth of suffering is to be comprehended, the cause of suffering (which is craving) is to be eradicated, the destruction of suffering (which is Nibbàna) is to be realized, the path leading to the destruction of suffering (which is the Eightfold Path) is to be developed. Whether the Buddhas arise or not these four truths exist in the world. It is the Buddhas that reveal them to mankind.

3 Viràga = Nibbàna.

4 Of lust etc.

5 That is, to control passions in order to realize Nibbàna.

6 When the Buddha refers to Himself He employs the term Tathàgata which means “who thus hath come”.

7 Saïkhàra is a multisignificant term. Here it is used in the sense of things conditioned by causes. Supermundane Nibbàna is not included in saïkhàra as it is not conditioned by any cause. It is causeless and timeless.

8 Suffering caused by attending to the five Aggregates.

9 Impermanence (anicca), sorrow (dukkha) and no-soul (anatta) are the three characteristics of all things conditioned by causes. It is by contemplating them that one realizes Nibbàna. The aspirant may choose any characteristic that appeals to him most.

Anattà or no-soul is the crux of Buddhism. The term saïkhàra which is applied to any conditioned thing is used in the two previous verses, while in the third verse the term dhamma is used. The commentator interprets dhamma as the “aggregates” (khandhà). The same interpretation he gives to saïkhàra too. If by dhamma is meant saïkhàra, there is no reason for the Buddha to make a differentiation in the third verse.

Saïkhàra is applied only to those things conditioned by causes. Dhamma can be applied to both conditioned and unconditioned things and states. It embraces both conditioned and unconditioned things including Nibbàna. In order to show that even Nibbàna is free from a permanent soul the Buddha used the term dhamma in the third verse. Nibbàna is a positive supramundane state and is without a soul.

“All the elements of being are non-self. When one by wisdom realizes (this), he heeds not (is superior to) (this world of) sorrow, this is the path to purity”. Radhakrishnan.

10 Sa§sannasaïkappamano literally, mind with right thoughts depressed.

11 Here vana means forest of such passions as lust, hatred, and delusion.

12 When the Buddha said, “Cut down the forest”, some newly ordained monks erroneously gave the expression its literal meaning. The Buddha, reading their thoughts, corrected them, stating that what he meant was not actual trees but passions.

13 Vana means big trees and vanatha means smaller trees. Here vana means the powerful passions and vanatha means the lesser passions.

14 Having eradicated all passions by means of the four Paths, be passionless.


19- Dhammattha Vagga

June 19, 2018

Home Page    Previous Chapter    Next Chapter

 

Chapter 19


The Just Or Righteous
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Na tena hoti dhammaññho Þ
yen’ attha§ sahasà naye
Yo ca attha§ anattha¤ ca Þ
ubho niccheyya paõóito 256.
2. Asàhasena dhammena Þ
samena nayatã pare
Dhammassa gutto medhàvã Þ
dhammaññho’ ti pavuccati. 257.

 

THE JUST SHOULD MAKE A PROPER INVESTIGATION
THE IMPARTIAL ARE CALLED THE TRUE JUSTICES

1. He is not thereby just because he hastily arbitrates cases. The wise man should investigate both right and wrong. 256.

2. The intelligent person who leads others not falsely but lawfully and impartially, who is a guardian of the law, is called one who abides by the law (dhammaññha). 257.

Story

    Some monks observed that certain judges accepted bribes and adjudged cases unjustly. Hearing this matter, the Buddha described the state of a true justice.


 

3. Na tena paõóito hoti Þ
yàvatà bahu bhàsati
Khemã averã abhayo Þ
paõóito’ ti pavuccati. 258.

 

ONE IS NOT DEEMED WISE BECAUSE ONE IS GARRULOUS

3. One is not thereby a learned man merely because one speaks much. He who is secure, without hate, and fearless is called “learned”. 258.

Story

    A group of six monks went about calling themselves wise and thus creating disorder. The Buddha uttered this verse in explanation.


 

4. Na tàvatà dhammadharo Þ
yàvatà bahu bhàsati
Yo ca appam pi sutvàna Þ
dhamma§ kàyena passati
Sa ve dhammadharo hoti Þ
yo dhamma§ nappamajjati. 259.

 

GARRULOUSNESS IS NOT A CHARACTERISTIC OF ONE WHO KNOWS THE DHAMMA

4. One is not versed in the Dhamma merely because one speaks too much. He who hears little and sees the Dhamma mentally, 1 and who does not neglect the Dhamma, is, indeed, versed in the Dhamma. 259.

Story

    A monk who knew only one verse was living in a forest. He used to recite it on the Holy days. The deities applauded him. Two other monks, who were versed in the Dhamma, came to the same forest and preached the Dhamma, but there was no applause from the deities. Displeased they went away and reported to the Buddha the attitude of the deities. The Buddha uttered this verse in explanation.


 

5. Na tena thero hoti Þ
yen’ assa palita§ siro
Paripakko vayo tassa Þ
moghajiõõo’ ti vuccati. 260.
6. Yamhi sacca¤ ca dhammo ca Þ
ahi§sà sa¤¤amo damo
Sa ve vantamalo dhãro Þ
thero iti pavuccati. 261.

 

GREY HAIR ALONE MAKES NOT A THERA
HE IS A THERA WHO IS STAINLESS

5. He is not thereby an elder (thera 2) merely because his head is grey. Ripe is he in age. “Old-in-vain” is he called. 260.

6. In whom are truth, 3 virtue, 4 harmlessness, restraint 5 and control, that wise man who is purged of impurities, 6 is, indeed, called an elder. 261.

Story

    Some monks were offended when the Buddha referred to a monk who appeared to be a young novice as a thera. The Buddha uttered this verse in explanation.


 

7. Na vàkkaraõamattena Þ
vaõõapokkharatàya và
Sàdhuråpo naro hoti Þ
issukã maccharã sañho. 262.
8. Yassa c’eta§ samucchinna§ Þ
målaghacca§ samåhata§
Sa vantadoso medhàvã Þ
sàdhuråpo’ ti vuccati. 263.

 

NOT BY HANDSOME APPEARANCE DOES ONE BECOME GOOD-NATURED
GOOD-NATURED IS HE WHO HAS GIVEN UP JEALOUSY ETC.

7. Not by mere eloquence, nor by handsome appearance, does a man become good-natured, should he be jealous, selfish, and deceitful. 262.

8. But in whom these are wholly cut off, uprooted and extinct, that wise man who is purged of hatred, is, indeed, called good-natured. 263.

Story

    Some young monks and novices demonstrated their respect towards their respective teachers. Some elderly monks who were eloquent preachers grew jealous of it. With a base motive they approached the Buddha and suggested that He advise those young monks not to rehearse the Dhamma without being corrected by them. The Buddha understanding their base intentions, uttered these verses.


 

9. Na muõóakena samaõo Þ
abbato alika§ bhaõa§
Icchàlobhasamàpanno Þ
samaõo ki§ bhavissati. 264.
10. Yo ca sameti pàpàni Þ
aõu§ thålàni sabbaso
Samitattà hi pàpàna§ Þ
samaõo ti pavuccati. 265.

 

A SHAVEN HEAD DOES NOT MAKE ONE A MONK

9. Not by a shaven head does an undisciplined man, 7 who utters lies, become a monk. How will one who is full of desire and greed be a monk? 264.

HE IS A MONK WHO HAS OVERCOME EVIL

10. He who wholly subdues evil deeds both small and great is called a monk because he has overcome all evil. 265.

Story

    A certain monk, when defeated in argument, would invite his opponent to meet in an appointed place at an appointed time to resume the discussion. He would then go to the appointed place before the appointed time and declare that the absence of the opponent meant acknowledgment of defeat. When this matter was reported to the Buddha He explained the attitude of a true monk.


 

11. Na tena bhikkhu hoti Þ
yàvatà bhikkhate pare
Vissa§ dhamma§ samàdàya Þ
bhikkhu hoti na tàvatà. 266.
12. Yo’ dha pu¤¤a¤ ca pàpa¤ ca Þ
bàhetvà brahmacariyavà
Saïkhàya loke carati Þ
sa ce bhikkhå’ti vuccati. 267.

 

ONE DOES NOT BECOME A BHIKKHU MERELY BY BEGGING
HE WHO IS HOLY IS CALLED A BHIKKHU

11. He is not thereby a bhikkhu 8 merely because he begs from others; by following the whole code (of morality 9) one certainly becomes a bhikkhu and not (merely) by such begging. 266.

12. Herein he who has transcended both good and evil, whose conduct is sublime, who lives with understanding in this world, he, indeed, is called a bhikkhu. 267.

Story

    A brahmin retired from the world and was living the life of an ascetic in an alien order begging food. He saw the Buddha and requested Him to address him as bhikkhu as he also was begging food. The Buddha answered that one does not become a bhikkhu merely by begging food.


 

13. Na monena muni hoti Þ
måëharåpo aviddasu
Yo ca tula§’ va paggayha Þ
varam àdàya paõóito 268.
14. Pàpàni parivajjeti Þ
sa munã tena so munã
Yo munàti ubho loke Þ
munã tena pavuccati. 269.

 

SILENCE ALONE DOES NOT MAKE A SAGE
BY SUPPRESSING EVIL ONE BECOMES A SAGE

13. Not by silence (alone) does he who is dull and ignorant become a sage; but that wise man who, as if holding a pair of scales, embraces the best 10 and shuns evil, is indeed a sage. 268.

14. For that reason 11 he is a sage. He who understands, both worlds 12 is, therefore, called a sage. 269.

Story

    After finishing a meal non-Buddhist ascetics used to offer merit to the donors, but the Buddha’s disciples used to depart in silence. People were offended by this seeming discourtesy. The Buddha thereupon enjoined the bhikkhus to offer merit. Then the ascetics were silent but found fault with the bhikkhus for discoursing at length. Thereupon the Buddha explained the attitude of a true sage.


 

15. Na tena ariyo hoti Þ
yena pàõàni hi§sati
Ahi§sà sabbapàõàna§ Þ
ariyo’ ti pavuccati. 270.

 

BY HARMLESSNESS ONE BECOMES A NOBLE (ARIYA)

15. He is not therefore an Ariya (Noble) in that he harms living beings; through his harmlessness towards all living beings is he called an Ariya (Noble). 270.

Story

    A man named Ariya (Noble) was fishing. The Buddha told him that one did not become an Ariya by harming others.


 

16. Na sãlabbatamattena Þ
bàhusaccena và puna
Atha và samàdhilàbhena Þ
vivicca sayanena và 271.
17. Phusàmi nekkhammasukha§ Þ
aputhujjanasevita§
Bhikkhu vissàsam àpàdi Þ
appatto àsavakkhaya§. 272.

 

A BHIKKHU SHOULD NOT BE CONTENTED UNTIL HE DESTROYS ALL PASSIONS

16-17. Not only by mere morality and austerities, 13 nor again by much learning, 14 nor even by developing mental concentration, nor by secluded lodging, (thinking) “I enjoy the bliss of renunciation not resorted to by the worldling” 15 (not with these) should you, O bhikkhu, rest content 16 without reaching the extinction of the corruptions. 17 271-272.

Story

    Some monks who had attained various spiritual heights did not strive to become Arahants, thinking that they could become Arahants at any time. The Buddha advised them not to be contented until they had reached their ultimate Goal (Arahantship).


End Notes

1 Kàyena – that is, nàmakàyena, through the mental body, or, in other words, through self-realization.

2 Thera – a term applied to those bhikkhus who have counted at least ten years in the Order from the date of their higher ordination. Thera, literally, means one who is firm or stable.

3 Sacca§ – the four noble truths.

4 Dhammo – the nine supramundane states.

5 Sa¤¤amo – morality and sense-restraint.

6 By means of the four Paths.

7 He who does not practise higher morality (sãla) and austerities (dhutàïga).

8 Bhikkhu, literally, means “he who begs” but bhikkhus do not beg. They silently stand at the door for alms. They live on what is spontaneously given by the supporters. See note on v. 31.

9 Vissa§ dhamma§ = visama§ dhamma§, vissa§ gandha§ và kàyakammàdika§ dhamma§ (Commentary). Vissa§ has two meanings (1) whole or all, and (2) bad smell. The Commentary gives only the latter in this case.

“He is not a mendicant simply because he begs others (for alms). He who adopts the whole law is a mendicant, not he who adopts only a part”. Radhakrishnan.

The context makes the verse clear. The brahmin who had adopted the ascetic life claimed the right to be called a bhikkhu simply because he begged his food as is the custom of the disciples of the Buddha although he did not observe the other practices of a bhikkhu.

Vissa§ dhamma§ could therefore be interpreted as “the whole code of morality pertaining to the life of a bhikkhu”.

10 Such as morality, concentration, wisdom, etc.

11 That is, for having embraced the best and abandoned evil.

12 Internal and external Aggregates.

13 The four kinds of higher morality observed by bhikkhus and the thirteen kinds of higher ascetic practices (dhutàïga) (Commentary).

14 That is, the Tipitaka (Commentary).

15 Anàgàmi stage (Commentary).

16 Faith in existence (Commentary). “Have a care”, Mrs. Rhys Davids.

17 That is, Arahantship.


18-Mala Vagga

June 19, 2018

Home Page   Previous Chapter    Next Chapter

Chapter 18


Impurities Or Taints
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Paõóupalàso’ va’ dàni’ si Þ
            yamapurisà’pi ca ta§ upaññhità 
Uyyogamukhe ca tiññhasi Þ
            pàtheyyam pi ca te na vijjati. 235.
2. So karohi dãpam attano Þ
            khippa§ vàyama paõóito bhava 
Niddhantamalo anaïgaõo Þ
            dibba§ ariyabhåmim ehisi. 236.
3. Upanãtavayo va’dàni’si Þ
            sampayàto’si yamassa santike 
Vàso’pi ca te natthi antarà Þ
            pàtheyyam pi ca te na vijjati. 237.
4. So karohi dãpam attano Þ
            khippa§ vàyama paõóito bhava 
Niddhantamalo anaïgaõo Þ
            na puna jàtijara§ upehisi. 238.

 

DEATH IS NEAR TO YOU

1. Like a withered leaf are you now. The messengers of death wait on you. On the threshold of decay you stand. Provision too there is none for you. 235.

STRIVE HARD

2. Make an island unto yourself. Strive quickly; become wise. Purged of stain and passionless, you shall enter the heavenly stage of the Ariyas. 1 236.

LIFE COMES TO AN END

3. Your life has come to an end now. To the presence of death you are setting out. No halting place is there for you by the way. Provision too there is none for you. 237.

BE PASSIONLESS

4. Make an island unto yourself. Strive without delay; become wise. Purged of stain and passionless, you will not come again to birth and old age. 238.

Story

    A father-in-law grew old without doing any good. His son-in-law invited the Buddha and the Sangha to the house and gave alms in his name. Thereupon the Buddha addressed these verses to the old man in admonition.


5. Anupubbena medhàvã Þ
thokathoka§ khaõe khaõe
Kammàro rajatass’ eva Þ
niddhame malam attano. 239.

 

PURIFY YOURSELF GRADUALLY

5. By degrees, little by little, from time to time, a wise person should remove his own impurities, as a smith removes (the dross) of silver. 239.

Story

    A devout person, realizing the inconveniences caused to monks while wearing robes in a grassy plot of land, started erecting a hall for the purpose. Having completed his good work little by little, invited the Buddha and the Sangha to an alms-giving and related the history of the gradual development of the hall. The Buddha praised him and preached on the gradual removal of one’s impurities.


 

6. Ayasà’ va mala§ samuññhita§ Þ
taduññhàya tam’eva khàdati
Eva§ atidhonacàrina§ Þ
sakakammàni nayanti duggati§. 240.

 

ONE’S EVIL RUINS ONESELF

6. As rust sprung from iron eats itself away when arisen, even so his own deeds lead the transgressor 2 to states of woe. 240.

Story

    A young monk stricken with indigestion died with a strong feeling of attachment to his new robe. Revealing his destiny, the Buddha discoursed on the baneful consequences of craving.


 

7. Asajjhàyamalà mantà Þ
anuññhànamalà gharà
Mala§ vaõõassa kosajja§ Þ
pamàdo rakkhato mala§. 241.

 

CAUSES OF STAIN

7. Non-recitation is the rust of incantations; 3 non-exertion is the rust of homes; 4 sloth is the taint of beauty; carelessness is the flaw of a watcher. 241.

Story

    A monk was jealous of the praise accorded to the two chief disciples for their exposition of the Dhamma. He claimed equal proficiency in preaching but when called upon to show his capability he failed to do so. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

8. Mal’ itthiyà duccarita§ Þ
macchera§ dadato mala§
Malà ve pàpakà dhammà Þ
asmi§ loke paramhi ca. 242.
9. Tato malà malatara§ Þ
avijjà parama§ mala§
Eta§ mala§ pahatvàna Þ
nimmalà hotha bhikkhavo. 243.

 

TAINTS ARE EVIL THINGS IGNORANCE IS THE GREATEST TAINT

8. Misconduct is the taint of a woman. Stinginess is the taint of a donor. Taints, indeed, are all evil things both in this world and in the next. 242.

9. A worse taint than these is ignorance, the greatest taint. Abandoning this taint, be taintless, O Bhikkhus! 243.

Story

    A newly married young man was disappointed with his young wife who proved to be an adulteress. When the youth mentioned this matter to the Buddha He uttered these verses.


 

10. Sujãva§ ahirãkena Þ
kàkasårena dha§sinà
Pakkhandinà pagabbhena Þ
sa§kiliññhena jãvita§. 244.
11. Hirãmatà ca dujjãva§ Þ
nicca§ sucigavesinà
Alãnen’ àpagabbhena Þ
suddhàjãvena passatà. 245.

 

IT IS EASY TO LEAD A SHAMELESS LIFE IT IS HARD TO LEAD A MODEST LIFE

10. Easy is the life of a shameless one who is as impudent as a crow, back-biting, presumptuous, arrogant, and corrupt. 244.

11. Hard is the life of a modest one who ever seeks purity, is detached, humble, clean in life, and reflective. 245.

Story

    A young monk offered same choice food to another monk and promised to offer such food whenever be obtained it. The latter, however departed without even thanking him for the offer. Hearing the story, the Buddha commented on courtesy and rudeness.


 

12. Yo pàõam atipàteti Þ
musàvàda¤ ca bhàsati
Loke adinna§ àdiyati Þ
paradàra¤ ca gacchati 246.
13. Suràmerayapàna¤ ca Þ
yo naro anuyu¤jati
Idh’ evam eso lokasmi§ Þ
måla§ khaõati attano. 247.
14. Eva§ bho purisa jànàhi Þ
pàpadhammà asa¤¤atà.
Mà ta§ lobho adhammo ca Þ
cira§ dukkhàya randhayu§. 248.

 

HE WHO DOES NOT OBSERVE THE FIVE PRECEPTS RUINS HIMSELF
BE NOT AVARICIOUS AND DO NO WRONG

12-13. Whoso in this world destroys life, tells lies, takes what is not given, goes to others’ wives, and is addicted to intoxicating drinks, such a one digs up his own root in this world. 246-247.

14. Know thus O good man: “Not easy of restraint are evil things”. Let not greed and wickedness 5 drag you to protracted misery. 248.

Story

    Many followers each of whom was observing one of the five precepts spoke of the difficulty of practising their respective precepts. Hearing their story, the Buddha spoke of the difficulty of practising them all without stating a single one as of lesser importance.


 

15. Dadàti ve yathàsaddha§ Þ
yathàpasàdana§ jano
Tattha yo maïku bhavati Þ
paresa§ pànabhojane
Na so divà và ratti§ và Þ
samàdhi§ adhigacchati. 249.
16. Yassa c’eta§ samucchinna§ Þ
målaghacca§ samåhata§
Sa ve divà và ratti§ và Þ
samàdhi§ adhigacchati. 250.

 

THE ENVIOUS ARE NOT AT PEACE THE UNENVIOUS ARE AT PEACE

15. People give according to their faith and as they are pleased. Whoever therein is envious of others’ food and drink, gains no peace 6 either by day or by night. 249.

16. But he who has this (feeling) fully cut off, uprooted and destroyed, gains peace by day and by night. 250.

Story

    A novice, son of a gate-keeper, spoke disparagingly of all the devotees except his own kinsfolk as regards their generosity. Some inquisitive monks made investigations about his so-called relatives and discovered the truth. When they informed the Buddha about his mean behaviour the Buddha spoke on the mental attitude of the envious and the unenvious.


 

17. Natthi ràgasamo aggi Þ
natthi dosasamo gaho
Natthi mohasama§ jàla§ Þ
natthi taõhàsamà nadi. 251.

 

THERE IS NO RIVER LIKE CRAVING

17. There is no fire like lust, no grip like hate, no net like delusion, no river like craving. 251.

Story

    Once the Buddha was preaching the Dhamma to six persons. Five were inattentive, and only one was attentive. The Buddha attributed their inattentiveness to their past tendencies. When the Venerable Ananda inquired the reason the Buddha replied that it was due to their respective lust, hatred, ignorance, and craving.


 

18. Sudassa§ vajjam a¤¤esa§ Þ
attano pana duddasa§
Paresa§ hi so vajjàni Þ
opuõàti yathà bhusa§
Attano pana chàdeti Þ
kali§’ va kitavà sañho. 252.

 

EASY TO SEE ARE OTHERS’ FAULTS

18. Easily seen are others’ faults, hard indeed to see are one’s own. Like chaff one winnows others’ faults, but one’s own (faults) one hides, as a crafty fowler conceals himself 7 by camouflage. 8252.

Story

    A wealthy person who desired to see the Buddha was dissuaded from meeting Him by the other ascetics, speaking in dispraise of Him. Hearing of it, the Buddha remarked that some find in others faults that do not exist, but fail to see their own faults.


 

19. Paravajjànupassissa Þ
nicca§ ujjhànasa¤¤ino
âsavà tassa vaóóhanti Þ
àrà so àsavakkhayà. 253.

 

DEFILEMENTS MULTIPLY IN THOSE WHO SEEK OTHERS’ FAULTS

19. He who sees others’ faults, and is ever irritable – the corruptions of such a one grow. He is far from the destruction of corruptions. 9 253.

Story

    The Buddha uttered this verse concerning a monk who was always seeking others’ faults.


 

20. âkàse pada§ natthi Þ
samaõo natthi bàhire
Papa¤cƒbhiratà pajà Þ
nippapa¤cà tathàgatà. 254.
21. âkàse pada§ natthi Þ
samaõo natthi bàhire
Saïkhàrà sassatà natthi Þ
natthi buddhàna§ i¤jita§. 255.

 

OUTSIDE THERE ARE NO SAINTS WHO HAVE REALISED NIBBâNA
THERE ARE NO AGGREGATES WHICH ARE ETERNAL

20. In the sky there is no track. Outside 10 there is no Saint. 11 Mankind delights in obstacles. 12 The Tathàgatas 13 are free from obstacles. 254.

21. In the sky there is no track. Outside there is no Saint. There are no conditioned things 14 that are eternal. There is no instability 15 in the Buddhas. 255.

Story

    As the Buddha was about to pass away Subhadda, a wandering ascetic approached the Buddha and wished to know about ascetics and teachers who belonged to other orders. In reply the Buddha uttered these verses.


End Notes

1 Namely: the Pure Abodes (Suddhàvàsa).

2 Atidhonacàri = the bhikkhu who lives without reflecting on the necessaries of life. While using the four requisites, namely: robes, food, drink, and lodging, a bhikkhu is expected to reflect on their special usefulness and loathsomeness. If he does not, he transgresses a minor rule by not using them properly. Dhona means the four necessaries.

3 Mantà mean religious doctrines, arts and sciences. Non-recitation of the scriptures and non-practice of the arts tend to make one forget them.

4 Ghara is interpreted as householders.

5 Adhammo is here used in the sense of hatred. The root causes of evil are greed and hatred.

6 Samàdhi, mundane or supramundane concentration.

7 Kaliü = attabhàva = body.

8 Kitavà = kitavàya = by means of sham branches etc.

9 Namely: the Fruit of Arahantship. See note on v. 226.

10 Outside the Dispensation (sàsana) of the Buddha.

11 Here samaõa refers to Saints who have realised the four Paths and four Fruits. They are the Ariya Saints who have attained Nibbàna.

12 Impediments such as craving, pride, etc.

13 An epithet of the Buddha. Literally, it means “who thus hath come”.

14 Saïkhàra means the five aggregates conditioned by causes.

15 There is no single impediment such as craving, pride, and so on, by means of which the Buddhas regard the conditioned things as eternal.


17- Kodha Vagga

June 19, 2018

Home Page    Previous Chapter    Next Chapter

Chapter 17


Anger
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Kodha§ jahe vippajaheyya màna§ Þ
sa¤¤ojana§ sabbam atikkameyya
Ta§ nàmaråpasmi§ asajjamàna§ Þ
aki¤cana§ nànupatanti dukkhà. 221.

 

GIVE UP ANGER

1. One should give up anger. One should abandon pride. One should overcome all fetters. Ills never befall him who clings not to mind and body and is passionless. 221.

Story

    The Venerable Moggallàna’s sister, who was suffering from a skin disease, on her brother’s advice erected an Assembly Hall. Soon she recovered. The Buddha attributed her skin disease to anger and uttered this verse.


 

2. Yo ve uppatita§ kodha§ Þ
ratha§ bhanta§’ va dhàraye
Tam aha§ sàrathi§ bråmi Þ
rasmiggàho itaro jano. 222.

 

CONTROL YOUR ANGER

2. Whoso checks his uprisen anger as though it were a rolling chariot, him I call a true charioteer. Other charioteers are mere rein-holders. 222.

Story

    A monk, while cutting down a tree to make a lodging for himself, accidentally injured the offspring of a tree spirit. She grew angry and wanted to kill him, but on later reflection controlled her uprisen anger. She reported the matter to the Buddha, who praised her and uttered this verse.


 

3. Akkodhena jine kodha§ Þ
asàdhu§ sàdhunà jine
Jine kadariya§ dànena Þ
saccena alikavàdina§. 223.

 

OVERCOME ANGER BY LOVE

3. Conquer anger by love. Conquer evil by good. Conquer the stingy by giving. Conquer the liar by truth. 223.

Story

    The junior mistress of a husband grew jealous of the senior mistress and did a great wrong to her, but the latter did not get angry. Later, the former repented and sought pardon from the latter. She replied that she would pardon her if she would implore pardon from the Buddha. This she did, and the Buddha admonished them.


 

4. Sacca§ bhaõe na kujjheyya Þ
dajjà’ ppasmim pi yàcito
Etehi tãhi ñhànehi Þ
gacche devàna santike. 224.

 

BE TRUTHFUL, PATIENT AND GENEROUS

4. One should utter the truth. One should not be angry. One should give even from a scanty store to him who asks. Along these three paths one may go to the presence of the gods. 224.

Story

The Venerable Moggallàna inquired of the devas what meritorious acts had led to their rebirth in such a celestial realm. They mentioned the trifling acts done by them involving such virtues as truthfulness, patience, generosity. etc. When the Venerable Moggallàna wished to know from the Buddha whether trifling good acts could produce rebirth in a heaven the Buddha uttered this verse in explanation.


 

5. Ahi§sakà ye munayo Þ
nicca§ kàyena sa§vutà
Te yanti accuta§ ñhàna§ Þ
yattha gantvà na socare. 225.

 

THE HARMLESS ATTAIN THE DEATHLESS

5. Those sages who are harmless, and are ever restrained in body, 1 go to the deathless state (Nibbàna), whither gone they never grieve. 225.

Story

    A brahmin and his wife greeted the Buddha as their son. The Buddha attributed this intimacy to past association. Hearing the Dhamma, they attained Arahantship. After their death the monks wished to know in what state they would be reborn. As they passed into Nibbàna the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

6. Sadà jàgaramànàna§ Þ
ahorattànusikkhina§
Nibbàna§ adhimuttàna§ Þ
attha§ gacchanti àsavà. 226.

 

THE EVER VIGILANT GIVE UP DEFILEMENTS

6. The defilements 2 of those who are ever vigilant, who discipline themselves day and night, who are wholly intent on Nibbàna, are destroyed. 226.

Story

    A servant maid, having worked hard until late at night, stepped out of the house and noticed some monks moving about on a neighbouring mountain. She thought to herself “I cannot sleep as I am too tired, but why can’t the monks sleep?” Later, the Buddha met her and explained to her the reason why monks keep awake at night.


 

7. Poràõam eta§ atula Þ
n’eta§ ajjatanàm iva
Nindanti tuõhim ƒsãna§ Þ
nindanti bahubhàõina§
Mitabhàõinam pi nindanti Þ
natthi loke anindito. 227.
8. Na cƒhu na ca bhavissati Þ
na c’etarahi vijjati
Ekanta§ nindito poso Þ
ekanta§ và pasa§sito. 228.
9. Ya¤ ce vi¤¤å pasa§santi Þ
anuvicca suve suve
Acchiddavutti§ medhàvi§ Þ
pa¤¤àsãlasamàhita§ 229.
10. Nekkha§ jambonadass’ eva Þ
ko ta§ ninditum arahati
Devà’pi na§ pasa§santi Þ
brahmunà’pi pasa§sito. 230.

THERE IS NONE WHO IS BLAMELESS IN THIS WORLD

7. This, O Atula, 3 is an old saying; it is not one of today only: they blame those who sit silent, they blame those who speak too much. Those speaking little too they blame. There is no one who is not blamed in this world. 227.

THERE IS NONE WHO IS WHOLLY BLAMED OR PRAISED

8. There never was, there never will be, nor does there exist now, a person who is wholly blamed or wholly praised. 228.

THE BLAMELESS ARE PRAISED

9. Examining day by day, the wise praise him who is of flawless life, intelligent, endowed with knowledge and virtue. 229.

WHO DARE BLAME THE PURE?

10. Who deigns to blame him who is like a piece of refined gold? Even the gods praise him; by Brahma too he is praised. 230.

Story

    A lay leader of a group named Atula wished to hear the Dhamma from the Venerable Revata. He remained silent as he was bent on solitude. Displeased, he went to the Venerable Sàriputta who discoursed at length on Abhidhamma. Displeased again he went to the Venerable Ananda, who delivered a brief discourse. Displeased with him too, he finally approached the Buddha, who thereupon uttered these verses and remarked that even a Buddha is not free from blame.


 

11. Kàyappakopa§ rakkheyya Þ
kàyena sa§vuto siyà
Kàyaduccarita§ hitvà Þ
kàyena sucarita§ care. 231.
12. Vacãpakopa§ rakkheyya Þ
vàcàya sa§vuto siyà
Vacãduccarita§ hitvà Þ
vàcàya sucarita§ care. 232.
13. Manopakopa§ rakkheyya Þ
manasà sa§vuto siyà
Manoduccarita§ hitvà Þ
manasà sucarita§ care. 233.
14. Kàyena sa§vutà dhãrà Þ
atho vàcàya sa§vutà
Manasà sa§vutà dhãrà Þ
te ve suparisa§vutà. 234.

 

BE PURE IN DEED, WORD AND THOUGHT

11. One should guard against misdeeds (caused by) the body, and one should be restrained in body. Giving up evil conduct in body, one should be of good bodily conduct. 231.

12. One should guard against misdeeds (caused by) speech, and one should be restrained in speech. Giving up evil conduct in speech, one should be of good conduct in speech. 232.

13. One should guard against misdeeds (caused by) the mind, and one should be restrained in mind. Giving up evil conduct in mind, one should be of good conduct in mind. 233.

14. The wise are restrained in deed; in speech, too, they are restrained. The wise, restrained in mind, are indeed those who are perfectly restrained. 234.

Story

    Some monks moved about wearing wooden sandals, thus creating a great noise. Advising them to be controlled in thought, word and, deed, the Buddha uttered these verses.


End Notes

1 Speech and thoughts are also herein implied.

2 There are four kinds of defilements or corruptions (âsavas), namely: sensual pleasures (kàma), becoming (bhava), false views (diññhi), and ignorance (avijjà). The first àsava is attachment to Sense Sphere, the second is attachment to the Realms of Form and the Formless Realms.

3 Atula is the name of a person.


16- Piya Vagga

June 19, 2018

Home Page    Previous Chapter    Next Chapter

Chapter 16


Affection
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Ayoge yu¤jam attàna§ Þ
yogasmi¤ ca ayojaya§
Attha§ hitvà piyaggàhã Þ
pihet’ attànuyogina§. 209.
2. Mà piyehi samàga¤chi Þ
appiyehi kudàcana§
Piyàna§ adassana§ dukkha§ Þ
appiyàna¤ ca dassana§. 210.
3. Tasmà piya§ na kayiràtha Þ
piyƒpàyo hi pàpako
Ganthà tesa§ na vijjanti Þ
yesa§ natthi piyƒppiya§. 211.

 

AVOID THAT WHICH SHOULD BE SHUNNED

1. Applying oneself 1 to that which should be avoided, not applying oneself to that which should be pursued, 2 and giving up the quest, 3 one who goes after pleasure envies them who exert themselves. 4 209.

GIVE UP BOTH WHAT IS DEAR AND NOT DEAR

2. Consort not with those that are dear, 5 never with those that are not dear; not seeing those that are dear and seeing those that are not dear, are both painful. 6 210.

HOLD NOTHING DEAR

3. Hence hold nothing dear, for separation from those that are dear is bad; bonds do not exist or those to whom naught is dear or not dear. 211.

Story

    A youth, beloved by his parents, entered the Order without their approval. Later, the parents also entered the Order. Yet they could not live separated from one another, and could not give up their affection. Hearing their story, the Buddha uttered these verses.


 

4. Piyato jàyati soko Þ
piyato jàyati bhaya§
Piyato vippamuttassa Þ
natthi soko kuto bhaya§. 212.

 

GRIEF SPRINGS FROM WHAT IS DEAR

4. From endearment springs grief, from endearment springs fear; for him who is wholly free from endearment there is no grief, much less fear. 212.

Story

    A father was grieving over the death of his son. The Buddha visited him and consoled him, reciting this verse.


 

5. Pemato jàyati soko Þ
pemato jàyati bhaya§
Pemato vippamuttassa Þ
natthi soko kuto bhaya§. 213.

 

GRIEF SPRINGS FROM AFFECTION

5. From affection springs grief, from affection springs fear; for him who is wholly free from affection there is no grief, much less fear. 213.

Story

    Visàkhà lost a beloved grand-daughter. When she visited the monastery the Buddha consoled her, reciting this verse.


 

6. Ratiyà jàyati soko Þ
ratiyà jàyati bhaya§
Ratiyà vippamuttassa Þ
natthi soko kuto bhaya§. 214.

 

GRIEF SPRINGS FROM ATTACHMENT

6. From attachment springs grief, from attachment springs fear; for him who is wholly free from attachment there is no grief, much less fear. 214.

Story

    Some princes becoming jealous of one another, fell to fighting over a courtesan. The Buddha spoke on the evil consequences of attachment.


 

7. Kàmato jàyati soko Þ
kàmato jàyati bhaya§
Kàmato vippamuttassa Þ
natthi soko kuto bhaya§. 215.

 

GRIEF SPRINGS FROM LUST

7. From lust springs grief, from lust springs fear; for him who is wholly free from lust there is no grief, much less fear. 215.

Story

    A misogynistic prince later fell in love with his beautiful bride-elect, whom he had not yet seen. As she was being brought to be given in marriage to the prince, she died unexpectedly. The prince was overcome with grief. Consoling him, the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

8. Taõhàya jàyati soko Þ
taõhàya jàyati bhaya§
Taõhàya vippamuttassa Þ
natthi soko kuto bhaya§. 216.

 

GRIEF SPRINGS FROM CRAVING

8. From craving springs grief, from craving springs fear; for him who is wholly free from craving there is no grief, much less fear. 216.

Story

    A brahmin ploughed his field and told the Buddha who visited him daily, that he would share the harvest with the Buddha. Unfortunately an unexpected storm destroyed the crop and the brahmin was sorry that he could not keep his promise. The Buddha visited him and consoling him, spoke on the nature of craving.


 

9. Sãladassanasampanna§ Þ
dhammaññha§ saccavedina§
Attano kammakubbàna§ Þ
ta§ jano kurute piya§. 217.

 

THE VIRTUOUS ARE DEAR TO ALL

9. Whoso is perfect in virtue, 7 and insight, 8 is established in the Dhamma, 9 has realized the Truths, 10 and fulfils his own duties 11 – him do folk hold dear. 217.

Story

    Some youths carrying cakes went past the Buddha and the Sangha, making no offering to them. In the rear they saw the Venerable Kassapa. Taking a liking to him, they offered him some cakes. The Venerable Kassapa advised them to offer some to the Buddha and the Sangha, who were sitting by the wayside. The monks were indignant, remarking that it was favouritism. Thereupon the Buddha declared that the Venerable Kassapa was dear even to the gods and uttered this verse.


 

10. Chandajàto anakkhàte Þ
manasà ca phuño siyà
Kàmesu ca appañibaddhacitto Þ
uddha§soto’ti vuccati. 218.

 

THE NON-ATTACHED GO UPSTREAM

10. He who has developed a wish for the Undeclared 12 (Nibbàna), he whose mind is thrilled (with the three Fruits 13), he whose mind is not bound by material pleasures, such a person is called an “Upstream-bound One”. 14 218.

Story

Some pupils inquired of their preceptor, who had attained Anàgàmi (Never-Returner), whether he had attained any stage of Sainthood. The preceptor did not answer the question as even lay followers could become Anàgàmis. He waited until he would attain Arahantship. Unfortunately he died and was reborn in a Pure Abode (Suddhàvàsa) where never-Returners seek birth until they attain Arahantship. The pupils went to the Buddha weeping. The Buddha remarked that death was inevitable. They replied that they were sorry as the preceptor had died without answering their question. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

11. Cirappavàsi§ purisa§ Þ
dårato sotthim àgata§
¥àtimittà suhajjà ca Þ
abhinandanti sàgata§. 219.
12. Tath’ eva katapu¤¤am pi Þ
asmà lokà para§ gata§
Pu¤¤àni patigaõhanti Þ
piya§ ¤àtiü’ va àgata§. 220.

 

MERIT WELCOMES THE DOERS OF GOOD

11. A man long absent and returned safe from afar, his kinsmen, friends, and well-wishers welcome on his arrival. 219.

12. Likewise, his good deeds will receive the well-doer who has gone from this world to the next, as kinsmen will receive a dear one on his return. 220.

Story

    A devout and wealthy person performed many good deeds. A place in a celestial plane was ready to receive him even before his death. The Buddha uttered these verses, commenting an his good deeds and his future state.


End Notes

1 That is, frequenting places undesirable for bhikkhus.

2 That is, right attention (yoniso manasikàra).

3 The practice of higher Morality, Concentration, and Insight.

4 The bhikkhu with no right discrimination, gives up his quest and being attached to sensual pleasures, returns to lay life. Later, he sees successful bhikkhus and envies them.

5 Applicable to both animate and inanimate objects, pleasant persons or things.

6 Attachment in one case and aversion in the other.

7 Four kinds of morality.

8 Connected with the supramundane Paths and Fruits.

9 Nine supramundane states. See note on v. 115.

10 Saccavedina§, “speaketh truth” (Mrs. Rhys Davids). The four Noble Truths are implied here.

11 The three modes of discipline, Morality (Sãla), Concentration (Samàdhi), and Wisdom (Pa¤¤à).

12 Anakkhàta – Nibbàna. It is so called because it should not be said that Nibbàna was created by any or that it is of some such hue as blue, etc. (Commentary).

13 The first three stages of Sainthood. SotàpattiSakadàgàmi, and Anàgàmi.

14 The reference is to the Anàgàmis (Never-Returners) who, after death, are born in the Pure Abodes. They are not born in the sense-sphere as they have eradicated sense-desires.


13-Loka Vagga

June 19, 2018

Home Page    Previous Chapter    Next Chapter

Chapter 13


The World
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

 

1. Hãna§ dhamma§ na seveyya Þ
pamàdena na sa§vase
Micchàdiññhi§ na seveyya Þ
na siyà lokavaddhano. 167.

 

GIVE UP BASE DESIRES

1. Do not serve mean ends, 1 Do not live in heedlessness. Do not embrace false views. Do not be a world-upholder. 2 167.

Story

    A young novice was offended at being called a shaveling. Nobody was able to pacify him. The Buddha adopted a conciliatory attitude and won his heart. On that occasion the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

2. Uttiññhe nappamajjeyya Þ
dhamma§ sucarita§ care
Dhammacàrã sukha§ seti Þ
asmi§ loke paramhi ca. 168.
3. Dhamma§ care sucarita§ Þ
na na§ duccarita§ care
Dhammacàrã sukha§ seti Þ
asmi§ loke paramhi ca. 169.

 

THE RIGHTEOUS ARE HAPPY BE RIGHTEOUS

2. Be not heedless in standing 3 (at people’s doors for alms). Observe (this) practice scrupulously. He who observes this practice lives happily both in this world and in the next. 168.

3. Scrupulously observe (this) practice. Do not observe it unscrupulously. He who observes this practice lives happily both in this world and in the next. 169.

Story

    On the day after His arrival in His birthplace Kapilavatthu immediately after His Enlightenment, the Buddha went in quest of alms in the city. King Suddhodana, His father, hearing that his son was begging alms in the city, indignantly ran up to Him and said that He was disgracing him by begging alms in the streets where He formerly used to travel in golden palanquins. Thereupon the Buddha remarked that it was the custom of His predecessors to go seeking alms from door to door, and He uttered these verses.


 

4. Yathà bubbulaka§ passe Þ
yathà passe marãcika§
Eva§ loka§ avekkhanta§ Þ
maccuràjà na passati. 170.

 

LIKE A BUBBLE IS THIS WORLD

4. Just as one would look upon a bubble, just as one would look upon a mirage 4 – if a person thus looks upon the world, the King of Death sees him not. 170.

Story

    Reflecting on a mirage and on bubbles of water, many monks attained Arahantship. Concerning their attainment, the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

5. Etha passath’ ima§ loka§ Þ
citta§ ràjarathåpama§
Yattha bàlà visãdanti Þ
natthi saïgo vijànata§. 171.

 

THE WISE ARE NOT ATTACHED TO THE WORLD

5. Come, behold this world 5 which is like unto an ornamented royal chariot, wherein fools flounder, but for the wise there is no attachment. 171.

Story

    A prince was grieved to hear of the death of a nautch girl who used to delight him by dancing and singing. He went to the Buddha seeking consolation. The Buddha comforted him and uttered this verse.


 

6. Yo ca pubbe pamajjitvà Þ
pacchà so nappamajjati
So ima§ loka§ pabhàseti Þ
abbhà mutto’ va candimà. 172.

 

THE HEEDFUL ILLUMINE THE WORLD

6. Whoever was heedless before and afterwards is not; such a one illumines this world like the moon freed from clouds. 172.

Story

    A monk was constantly sweeping the rooms of the monastery. As advised by an Arahant he meditated and eventually attained Arahantship. Concerning his change of attitude, the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

7. Yassa pàpa§ kata§ kamma§ Þ
kusalena pithãyati
So ima§ loka§ pabhàseti Þ
abbhà mutto’ va candimà. 173.

 

EVIL CAN BE ERASED BY GOOD

7. Whoever, by a good deed, 6 covers the evil done, 7 such a one illumines this world like the moon freed from clouds. 173.

Story

    Angulimàla a notorious murderer, was converted by the Buddha. Later, he not only became a very compassionate monk but also attained Arahantship and passed away into Nibbàna. The monks wished to know how such a murderer could have become an Arahant. In reply the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

8. Andhabhåto aya§ loko Þ
tanuk’ettha vipassati
Sakunto jàlamutto’ va Þ
appo saggàya gacchati. 174.

 

FEW ARE THE CLEAR-SIGHTED

8. Blind is this world. Few are those who clearly see. As birds escape from a net few go to a blissful state. 8 174.

Story

    The devout daughter of a weaver came to hear the Buddha and answered four enigmatic questions put to her by the Buddha which the audience could not understand. The Buddha explained the matter and uttered this verse.


 

9. Ha§sàdiccapathe yanti Þ
àkàse yanti iddhiyà
Nãyanti dhãrà lokamhà Þ
jetvà màra§ savàhini§. 175.

 

THE WISE SEEK AN ESCAPE FROM THIS WORLD

9. Swans wing along on the path of the sun. (Men) go through air by psychic powers, 9 The wise are led away from the world, 10 having conquered Màra and his host. 11 175.

Story

    Some monks came to see the Buddha and, hearing the Dhamma attained Arahantship with psychic powers. Later, they departed flying through the air. The Venerable Ananda, who had seen them coming, noticed their absence and inquired of the Buddha where they had gone. Just at that moment some swans flew through the air. Then the Buddha remarked that Arahants, who possess psychic powers, go through the air like swans.


 

10. Eka§ dhamma§ atãtassa Þ
musàvàdissa jantuno
Vitiõõaparalokassa Þ
natthi pàpa§ akàriya§. 176.

 

THERE IS NO EVIL THAT A LIAR CANNOT COMMIT

10. There is no evil that cannot be done by the liar, 12 who has transgressed the one law (of truthfulness) and who is indifferent to a world beyond. 176.

Story

    A vicious woman feigned pregnancy and in the Hall of Truth publicly accused the Buddha as having being responsible for her condition. People discovered the truth. Concerning her false accusation, the Buddha uttered this verse.


 

11. Na ve kadariyà devaloka§ vajanti Þ
bàlà have nappasa§santi dàna§
Dhãro ca dàna§ anumodamàno Þ
ten’eva so hoti sukhi parattha. 177.

 

THE STINGY ARE NOT HAPPY

11. Verily misers go not to the celestial realms. Fools do not indeed praise liberality. The wise man rejoices in giving and thereby become happy thereafter. 177.

Story

    A King spent a large sum of money in giving alms to the Buddha and the Order. One minister was displeased about it and another was full of joy. Taking into consideration their contrary attitudes, the Buddha addressed this verse to the King.


 

12. Pathavyà ekarajjena Þ
saggassa gamanena và
Sabbalokàdhipaccena Þ
sotàpattiphala§ vara§. 178.

 

SPIRITUAL ADVANCEMENT IS BETTER THAN WORLDLY SOVEREIGNTY

12. Better than absolute sovereignty 13 over the earth, better than going to heaven, better than even lordship over all the worlds, is the Fruit of a Stream-Winner. 14 178.

Story

    Anàthapiõóika the millionaire, induced his son to hear the Dhamma from the Buddha, offering him a thousand pieces of money. Tempted by the reward, he saw the Buddha, heard the dhamma and became a Stream-Winner. Thereupon the Buddha commented on the superiority of spiritual advancement over all worldly possessions.


End Notes

1 That is, sensual pleasures.

2 By being subject to repeated births and deaths.

3 This translation is according to the Commentary but owing to the ambiguity of the first word it may be translated, “be alert, be not heedless”, etc.

4 This psycho-physical organism is to be regarded as being as empty as a bubble and as illusive as a mirage. The wise man who could so regard it would end the ills of life.

5 This body, composed of the five Aggregates.

6 By the Path of Arahantship.

7 One has to reap the effects of one’s Kamma. But one is not bound to reap the effects of all actions one has done in the course of Sa§sàra. If one were, an escape from birth and death would be impossible. At times it is possible to obliterate one’s evil kamma by performing powerful good kamma.

8 Sagga – blissful states, not eternal heavens.

9 Iddhi. By mental development it is possible to fly through the air, walk on water, dive into the earth, etc. Such kinds of powers are psychic and supernormal, but not miraculous.

10 That is, the Arahants attain Parinibbàna without coming into birth again.

11 The host of Màra, the Evil One, is described as comprising ten kinds of passions (kilesa). They are: 1. material pleasures (kàma), 2. aversion for the Holy Life (arati), 3. hunger and thirst (khuppipàsà), 4. craving (taõhà), 5. sloth and torpor (thãna-middha), 6. fear (bhaya), 7. doubt (vicikicchà), 8. detraction and obstinacy (makkha-thambha), 9. gain (làbha), praise (siloka) honour (sakkàra) and ill-gotten fame (yasa), 10. Extolling of oneself and contempt for others (attukka§sana-paravambhana).

12 An untruthful person, devoid of self-respect, who has no belief in an after life and who has no fear for the attendant consequences of evil, is liable to commit any evil. Such a person does not see earthly bliss or heavenly bliss or Nibbànic bliss (Commentary).

13 Internal purification is far superior to fleeting worldly possessions of transitory heavenly bliss.

14 Sotàpatti. Here Sota means the stream that leads to Nibbàna. It is the noble Eightfold Path. “â” means for the first time. “Patti” means attainment. Sotàpatti means the attainment of the stream for the first time. It is the realization of Nibbàna for the first time. This is the first stage of Sainthood. The Stream-Winners are not born in woeful states, but the worldly great are not exempt from them.